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Reactive Group Datasheet

Phenols and Cresols

What are reactive groups?

Reactive groups are categories of chemicals that typically react in similar ways because they are similar in their chemical structure. Each substance with a chemical datasheet has been assigned to one or more reactive groups, and CAMEO Chemicals uses the reactive group assignments to make its reactivity predictions. More info about reactivity predictions...

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There are 278 chemical datasheets assigned to this reactive group.

Description

Flammability
Materials in this group are combustible. Some nitro and diazo derivatives of phenols explode when heated.
Reactivity
Compounds in this group do not behave as organic alcohols, as one might guess from the presence of a hydroxyl (-OH) group in their structure. Instead, they react as weak organic acids. Phenols and cresols are much weaker as acids than common carboxylic acids (phenol has pKa = 9.88). These materials are incompatible with strong reducing agents such as hydrides, nitrides, alkali metals, and inorganic sulfides. Flammable gas (H2) is often generated, and the heat of the reaction may ignite the gas. Heat is also generated by the acid-base reaction between phenols and bases. Such heating may initiate polymerization of the organic compound. Phenols are sulfonated very readily (for example, by concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature). The reactions generate heat. Phenols are also nitrated very rapidly, even by dilute nitric acid. Nitrated phenols often explode when heated. Many of them form metal salts that can be detonated even by rather mild shock.
Toxicity
Ranges from moderate to high toxicity. Some of the more toxic members of this class of compounds are the chlorinated and nitro-substituted phenols that are used as pesticides and antibacterials (dinoseb, creosote, chlorinated phenol, p-nitrophenol). Phenol is strongly irritating to the skin.
Other Characteristics
Characterized by -OH on aromatic ring. Phenols are used in many organic syntheses, and the making of phenol/formaldehyde resins and polycarbonate resins.
Examples
Phenol, cresol, dinitrophenol, phenylphenol, dinitrocresol, alkyl phenol, aminochlorophenol, aminophenol, amyl phenol, butyl phenol, catechol, creosote, picric acid, resorcinol, trichlorophenol, dichlorocresol.

Reactivity Documentation

Use the links below to find out how this reactive group interacts with any of the reactive groups in the database.

The predicted hazards and gas byproducts for each reactive group pair will be displayed, as well as documentation and references that were used to make the reactivity predictions.

Mix Phenols and Cresols with: