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3 - Flammable liquid
Chemical Identifiers | Hazards | Response Recommendations | Physical Properties | Regulatory Information | Alternate Chemical Names

Chemical Identifiers

The Chemical Identifier fields include common identification numbers, the NFPA diamond, U.S. Department of Transportation hazard labels, and a general description of the chemical. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources..
CAS Number UN/NA Number DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • 78-78-4   (ISOPENTANE)
  • Flammable Liquid
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
1 0
Blue Health 1 Can cause significant irritation.
Red Flammability 4 Burns readily. Rapidly or completely vaporizes at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperature.
Yellow Instability 0 Normally stable, even under fire conditions.
White Special
(NFPA, 2010)
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
General Description
Watery colorless liquid with a gasoline-like odor. Floats on water. Flammable, irritating vapor is produced. Boiling point is 82°F. (USCG, 1999)


The Hazard fields include special hazard alerts, air and water reactions, fire hazards, health hazards, a reactivity profile, and details about reactive groups assignments and potentially incompatible absorbents. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. Insoluble in water.
Fire Hazard
Behavior in Fire: Highly volatile liquid. Vapors may explode when mixed with air. (USCG, 1999)
Health Hazard
Inhalation causes irritation of respiratory tract, cough, mild depression, irregular heartbeat. Aspiration causes severe lung irritation, coughing, pulmonary edema; excitement followed by depression. Ingestion causes nausea, vomiting, swelling of abdomen, headache, depression. (USCG, 1999)
Reactivity Profile
ISOPENTANE is a fire and explosion hazard when in contact with oxidizing agents. (NTP, 1992).
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

No information available.

Response Recommendations

The Response Recommendation fields include isolation and evacuation distances, as well as recommendations for firefighting, non-fire response, protective clothing, and first aid. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 128 [Flammable Liquids (Water-Immiscible)]:

As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters (150 feet) in all directions.

LARGE SPILL: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 300 meters (1000 feet).

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2016)
Fire Extinguishing Agents Not to Be Used: Water may be ineffective

Fire Extinguishing Agents: Dry chemical, foam, or carbon dioxide (USCG, 1999)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from ERG Guide 128 [Flammable Liquids (Water-Immiscible)]:

ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. A vapor-suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. Use clean, non-sparking tools to collect absorbed material.

LARGE SPILL: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Water spray may reduce vapor, but may not prevent ignition in closed spaces. (ERG, 2016)
Protective Clothing
Eye protection (as for gasoline) (USCG, 1999)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
No information available.
First Aid
EYES: First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center. Do not put any ointments, oils, or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop.

SKIN: IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. If symptoms such as redness or irritation develop, IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital for treatment.

INHALATION: IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air. If symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat, or chest) develop, call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital. Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. Whenever possible, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) should be used; if not available, use a level of protection greater than or equal to that advised under Protective Clothing.

INGESTION: DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Volatile chemicals have a high risk of being aspirated into the victim's lungs during vomiting which increases the medical problems. If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital. If the victim is convulsing or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth, ensure that the victim's airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with the head lower than the body. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital. (NTP, 1992)

Physical Properties

The Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • C5H12
Flash Point: -70 ° F (NTP, 1992)
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): 1.4 % (NTP, 1992)
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): 7.6 % (NTP, 1992)
Autoignition Temperature: 800 ° F (USCG, 1999)
Melting Point: -255.8 ° F (NTP, 1992)
Vapor Pressure: 400 mm Hg at 50.9 ° F ; 595 mm Hg at 70.0° F (NTP, 1992)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): 2.48 (NTP, 1992)
Specific Gravity: 0.62 at 68 ° F (USCG, 1999)
Boiling Point: 82 ° F at 760 mm Hg (NTP, 1992)
Molecular Weight: 72.15 (NTP, 1992)
Water Solubility: less than 1 mg/mL at 73° F (NTP, 1992)
Ionization Potential: data unavailable
IDLH: data unavailable

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

No AEGL information available.

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

No ERPG information available.

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Isopentane; (Ethyldimethylmethane; 2-Methylbutane) (78-78-4) 3000 ppm 1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL. 33000 ppm 3-flame icon indicates value is 100% or more of LEL. 200000 ppm 3-flame icon indicates value is 100% or more of LEL. LEL = 14000 ppm
1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL.
3-flame icon indicates value is 100% or more of LEL.
(DOE, 2016)

Regulatory Information

The Regulatory Information fields include information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Title III Consolidated List of Lists and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (see more about these data sources).

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
CAA 112(r)
Butane, 2-methyl- 78-78-4 10000 pounds
Isopentane 78-78-4 10000 pounds

(EPA List of Lists, 2015)

DHS Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

Chemical of Interest CAS Number Min Conc STQ Security
Min Conc STQ Security
Min Conc STQ Security
Isopentane; [Butane, 2-methyl-] 78-78-4 1.00 % 10000 pounds flammable

(DHS, 2007)

Alternate Chemical Names

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.