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Chemical Datasheet

PROPIONITRILE

3 - Flammable liquid 6.1 - Poison
Chemical Identifiers | Hazards | Response Recommendations | Physical Properties | Regulatory Information | Alternate Chemical Names

Chemical Identifiers

The Chemical Identifier fields include common identification numbers, the NFPA diamond, U.S. Department of Transportation hazard labels, and a general description of the chemical. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • 107-12-0   (PROPIONITRILE)
  • Flammable Liquid
  • Poison
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
Propionitrileexternal link
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
3
4 1
Blue Health 4 Can be lethal.
Red Flammability 3 Can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions.
Yellow Instability 1 Normally stable but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures.
White Special
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
A colorless liquid with an ether-like odor. Density 0.683 g / cm3. Flash point 61°F. Toxic by inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion. Vapors are heavier than air. Used as a solvent, and to make other chemicals.

Hazards

The Hazard fields include special hazard alerts, air and water reactions, fire hazards, health hazards, a reactivity profile, and details about reactive groups assignments and potentially incompatible absorbents. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. Soluble in water.
Fire Hazard
When heated to decomposition, it emits toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides and cyanide. It is a flammable/combustible material and may be ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may travel to a source of ignition and flash back. Container may explode in heat of fire. Vapor explosion and poison hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Generates cyanide ions. Poisonous on contact with acids. stable, but may become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. (EPA, 1998)
Health Hazard
It is highly toxic. This super toxic compound has a probable oral lethal dose in humans of less than 5 mg/kg or a taste (less than 7 drops) for a 70 kg (150 lb.) person. It is a mild to moderate skin and eye irritant. (EPA, 1998)
Reactivity Profile
PROPIONITRILE is incompatible with strong acids, strong bases, strong oxidizing agents and strong reducing agents. After refluxing for 24 hours at 221°F, a mixture of this compound with N-bromosuccinimide exploded. (NTP, 1992)
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

No information available.

Response Recommendations

The Response Recommendation fields include isolation and evacuation distances, as well as recommendations for firefighting, non-fire response, protective clothing, and first aid. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 131 [Flammable Liquids - Toxic]:

As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters (150 feet) in all directions.

SPILL: Increase, in the downwind direction, as necessary, the isolation distance shown above.

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2016)
Firefighting
Keep unnecessary people away; isolate hazard area and deny entry. Stay upwind; keep out of low areas. Wear positive pressure breathing apparatus and special protective clothing. Isolate for 1/2 mile in all directions if tank car or truck is involved in fire.

Small fires: dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray, and foam. Large fires: water spray, fog, or foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Cool containers that are exposed to flames with water from the side until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discoloration of tank due to fire. (EPA, 1998)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from ERG Guide 131 [Flammable Liquids - Toxic]:

Fully encapsulating, vapor-protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks with no fire. ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. A vapor-suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors.

SMALL SPILL: Absorb with earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers for later disposal. Use clean, non-sparking tools to collect absorbed material.

LARGE SPILL: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Water spray may reduce vapor, but may not prevent ignition in closed spaces. (ERG, 2016)
Protective Clothing
Skin: Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.

Eyes: Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.

Wash skin: The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.

Remove: Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.

Change: No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the work shift.

Provide: Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.] (NIOSH, 2016)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
No information available.
First Aid
Warning: Effects, including skin reactions, may be delayed. Caution is advised. Vital signs should be monitored closely. Heart palpitation may begin within minutes after exposure.

Note: Propionitrile is very readily absorbed through the skin.

Signs and Symptoms of Propionitrile Exposure: Signs and symptoms of acute exposure to propionitrile may include hypertension (high blood pressure) and tachycardia (rapid heart rate), followed by hypotension (low blood pressure) and bradycardia (slow heart rate). Cherry-red mucous membranes and blood, cardiac arrhythmias, and other cardiac abnormalities are common. Cyanosis (blue tint to the skin and mucous membranes) is not a consistent finding. Tachypnea (rapid respiratory rate) may be followed by respiratory depression. Lung hemorrhage and pulmonary edema may also occur. Headache, vertigo (dizziness), agitation, and giddiness may be followed by combative behavior, convulsions, paralysis, protruding eyeballs, dilated and unreactive pupils, and coma. Propionitrile is irritating to the skin and mucous membranes. Lacrimation (tearing) and a burning sensation of the mouth and throat are common. Excessive salivation, nausea, and vomiting may also occur.

Emergency Life-Support Procedures: Acute exposure to propionitrile may require decontamination and life support for the victims. Emergency personnel should wear protective clothing appropriate to the type and degree of contamination. Air-purifying or supplied-air respiratory equipment should also be worn, as necessary. Rescue vehicles should carry supplies such as plastic sheeting and disposable plastic bags to assist in preventing spread of contamination.

Inhalation Exposure:
1. Move victims to fresh air. Emergency personnel should avoid self-exposure to propionitrile.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. IMMEDIATELY begin administering 100% oxygen to all victims. Monitor victims for respiratory distress.Warning: To prevent self-poisoning, avoid mouth-to-mouth breathing; use a forced-oxygen mask. Direct oral contact with propionitrile-contaminated persons or their gastric contents may result in self-poisoning.
3. Rush to a health care facility.
4. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.

Dermal/Eye Exposure:
1. Remove victims from exposure. Emergency personnel should avoid self-exposure to propionitrile.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. IMMEDIATELY begin administering 100% oxygen to all victims. Monitor victims for respiratory distress.Warning: To prevent self-poisoning, avoid mouth-to-mouth breathing; usea forced-oxygen mask. Direct oral contact with propionitrile-contaminated persons or their gastric contents may result in self-poisoning.
3. Rush to a health care facility.
4. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing as soon as possible.
5. If eye exposure has occurred, eyes must be flushed with lukewarm water for at least 15 minutes.
6. Wash exposed skin areas thoroughly with water.
7. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.

Ingestion Exposure:
1. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. IMMEDIATELY begin administering 100% oxygen to all victims. Monitor victims for respiratory distress.Warning: To prevent self-poisoning, avoid mouth-to-mouth breathing; use a forced-oxygen mask. Direct oral contact with propionitrile-contaminated persons or their gastric contents may result in self-poisoning.
2. Rush to a health care facility.
3. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
4. DO NOT induce vomiting or attempt to neutralize!
5. Activated charcoal may be administered if victims are conscious and alert. Use 15 to 30 g (1/2 to 1 oz) for children, 50 to 100 g (1-3/4 to 3-1/2 oz) for adults, with 125 to 250 mL (1/2 to 1 cup) of water.
6. Give the victims water or milk: children up to 1 year old, 125 mL (4 oz or 1/2 cup); children 1 to 12 years old, 200 mL (6 oz or 3/4 cup); adults, 250 mL (8 oz or 1 cup). Water or milk should be given only if victims are conscious and alert. (EPA, 1998)

Physical Properties

The Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • C3H5N
Flash Point: 35.6 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): 3.1 % (EPA, 1998)
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): 14 % (NTP, 1992)
Autoignition Temperature: data unavailable
Melting Point: -133 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Pressure: 40 mm Hg at 71.6 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): 1.9 (EPA, 1998)
Specific Gravity: 0.802 at 32 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Boiling Point: 207 ° F at 760 mm Hg (EPA, 1998)
Molecular Weight: 55.08 (EPA, 1998)
Water Solubility: 50 to 100 mg/mL at 73° F (NTP, 1992)
Ionization Potential: 11.84 eV (NIOSH, 2016)
IDLH: data unavailable

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

Final AEGLs for Propionitrile (107-12-0)
Exposure Period AEGL-1 AEGL-2 AEGL-3
10 minutes NR 3.7 ppm 11 ppm
30 minutes NR 3.7 ppm 11 ppm
60 minutes NR 3 ppm 9.1 ppm
4 hours NR 1.9 ppm 5.7 ppm
8 hours NR 1.3 ppm 3.8 ppm
NR = Not recommended due to insufficient data
(NAC/NRC, 2017)

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

No ERPG information available.

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Propionitrile; (Propiononitrile) (107-12-0) 0.27 ppm 3 ppm 9.1 ppm LEL = 31000 ppm
(DOE, 2016)

Regulatory Information

The Regulatory Information fields include information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Title III Consolidated List of Lists, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Standard List (see more about these data sources).

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
Ethyl cyanide 107-12-0 500 pounds 10 pounds 10 pounds P101 10000 pounds
Propanenitrile 107-12-0 500 pounds 10 pounds 10 pounds P101 10000 pounds
Propionitrile 107-12-0 500 pounds 10 pounds 10 pounds P101 10000 pounds

(EPA List of Lists, 2015)

DHS Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

RELEASE THEFT SABOTAGE
Chemical of Interest CAS Number Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Propionitrile; [Propanenitrile] 107-12-0 1.00 % 10000 pounds toxic

(DHS, 2007)

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

No regulatory information available.

Alternate Chemical Names

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.