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Chemical Datasheet

PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE

8 - Corrosive
Chemical Identifiers | Hazards | Response Recommendations | Physical Properties | Regulatory Information | Alternate Chemical Names

Chemical Identifiers

The Chemical Identifier fields include common identification numbers, the NFPA diamond U.S. Department of Transportation hazard labels, and a general description of the chemical. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • 85-44-9
  • Corrosive
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
Phthalic anhydrideexternal link
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
1
2 0
Blue Health 2 Can cause temporary incapacitation or residual injury.
Red Flammability 1 Must be preheated before ignition can occur.
Yellow Instability 0 Normally stable, even under fire conditions.
White Special
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
A colorless to white lustrous solid in the form of needles with a mild distinctive odor. Moderately toxic by inhalation or ingestion and a skin irritant. Melting point 64°F Flash point 305°F. Forms a corrosive solution when mixed with water. Used in the manufacture of materials such as artificial resins.

Hazards

The Hazard fields include special hazard alerts air and water reactions, fire hazards, health hazards, a reactivity profile, and details about reactive groups assignments and potentially incompatible absorbents. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
none
Air & Water Reactions
Reacts, usually slowly with water to form phthalic acid and heat [Merck 11th ed. 1989]. The phthalic acid is somewhat soluble in water.
Fire Hazard
Excerpt from ERG Guide 156 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Combustible / Water-Sensitive)]:

Combustible material: may burn but does not ignite readily. Substance will react with water (some violently) releasing flammable, toxic or corrosive gases and runoff. When heated, vapors may form explosive mixtures with air: indoors, outdoors and sewers explosion hazards. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated or if contaminated with water. (ERG, 2016)
Health Hazard
Solid irritates skin and eyes, causing coughing and sneezing. Liquid causes severe thermal burns. (USCG, 1999)
Reactivity Profile
PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE reacts exothermically with water. The reactions are sometimes slow, but can become violent when local heating accelerates their rate. Acids accelerate the reaction with water. Incompatible with acids, strong oxidizing agents, alcohols, amines, and bases. Undergoes exothmeric nitration with fuming nitric acid-sulfuric acid and may give mixtures of the potentially explosive phthaloyl nitrates or nitrites or their nitro derivatives [Chem. & Ind. 20:790. 1972]. Phthalic anhydride reacts violently with CuO at elevated temperatures [Park, Chang-Man, Richard J. Sheehan. "Phthalic Acids and Other Benzenepolycarboxylic Acids" Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005]. Mixtures of phthalic anhydride and anhydrous CO2 explode violently if heated [Leaflet No. 5, Inst. of Chem., London, 1940].
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

Use caution: Liquids with this reactive group classification have been known to react with the absorbents listed below. More info about absorbents, including situations to watch out for...

Response Recommendations

The Response Recommendation fields include isolation and evacuation distances, as well as recommendations for firefighting, non-fire response, protective clothing, and first aid. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 156 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Combustible / Water-Sensitive)]:

As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids.

SPILL: Increase, in the downwind direction, as necessary, the isolation distance shown above.

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2016)
Firefighting
Excerpt from ERG Guide 156 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Combustible / Water-Sensitive)]:

Note: Most foams will react with the material and release corrosive/toxic gases.

SMALL FIRE: CO2, dry chemical, dry sand, alcohol-resistant foam.

LARGE FIRE: Water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam. FOR CHLOROSILANES, DO NOT USE WATER; use AFFF alcohol-resistant medium-expansion foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Use water spray or fog; do not use straight streams.

FIRE INVOLVING TANKS OR CAR/TRAILER LOADS: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. (ERG, 2016)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from ERG Guide 156 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Combustible / Water-Sensitive)]:

ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. A vapor-suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. FOR CHLOROSILANES, use AFFF alcohol-resistant medium-expansion foam to reduce vapors. DO NOT GET WATER on spilled substance or inside containers. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Avoid allowing water runoff to contact spilled material. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas.

SMALL SPILL: Cover with DRY earth, DRY sand or other non-combustible material followed with plastic sheet to minimize spreading or contact with rain. Use clean, non-sparking tools to collect material and place it into loosely covered plastic containers for later disposal. (ERG, 2016)
Protective Clothing
Skin: Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.

Eyes: Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.

Wash skin: The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.

Remove: Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.

Change: Workers whose clothing may have become contaminated should change into uncontaminated clothing before leaving the work premise. (NIOSH, 2016)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
No information available.
First Aid
EYES: First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center. Do not put any ointments, oils, or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop.

SKIN: IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. If symptoms such as redness or irritation develop, IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital for treatment.

INHALATION: IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air. If symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat, or chest) develop, call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital. Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. Whenever possible, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) should be used; if not available, use a level of protection greater than or equal to that advised under Protective Clothing.

INGESTION: DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center. Be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital if advised by a physician. If the victim is convulsing or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth, ensure that the victim's airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with the head lower than the body. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital. (NTP, 1992)

Physical Properties

The Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • C8H4O3
Flash Point: 305 ° F (NTP, 1992)
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): 1.7 % (NTP, 1992)
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): 10.4 % (NTP, 1992)
Autoignition Temperature: 1058 ° F (USCG, 1999)
Melting Point: 267.4 ° F (NTP, 1992)
Vapor Pressure: 0.0002 mm Hg at 68 ° F ; 0.001 mm Hg at 86° F (NTP, 1992)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): 5.1 (NTP, 1992)
Specific Gravity: 1.2 at 275 ° F 1.53 at 20°C (solid) (USCG, 1999)
Boiling Point: 563 ° F at 760 mm Hg (sublimes) (NTP, 1992)
Molecular Weight: 148.12 (NTP, 1992)
Water Solubility: Decomposes (NTP, 1992)
Ionization Potential: 10.00 eV (NIOSH, 2016)
IDLH: 60 mg/m3 (NIOSH, 2016)

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

No AEGL information available.

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

No ERPG information available.

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Phthalic anhydride (85-44-9) 18 mg/m3 56 mg/m3 10000 mg/m3
(DOE, 2016)

Regulatory Information

The Regulatory Information fields include information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Title III Consolidated List of Lists, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Standard List (see more about these data sources).

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
Phthalic anhydride 85-44-9 5000 pounds 313 U190

(EPA List of Lists, 2015)

DHS Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

No regulatory information available.

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

No regulatory information available.

Alternate Chemical Names

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.