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Chemical Datasheet

NITROBENZENE

6.1 - Poison
Chemical Identifiers | Hazards | Response Recommendations | Physical Properties | Regulatory Information | Alternate Chemical Names

Chemical Identifiers

The Chemical Identifier fields include common identification numbers, the NFPA diamond U.S. Department of Transportation hazard labels, and a general description of the chemical. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • 98-95-3   (NITROBENZENE)
  • Poison
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
Nitrobenzeneexternal link
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
2
3 1
Blue Health 3 Can cause serious or permanent injury.
Red Flammability 2 Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
Yellow Instability 1 Normally stable but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures.
White Special
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
A pale yellow to dark brown liquid. Flash point 190°F. Very slightly soluble in water. Toxic by inhalation and by skin absorption. Combustion give toxic oxides of nitrogen. Density 10.0 lb /gal.

Hazards

The Hazard fields include special hazard alerts air and water reactions, fire hazards, health hazards, a reactivity profile, and details about reactive groups assignments and potentially incompatible absorbents. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
none
Air & Water Reactions
Very slightly soluble in water.
Fire Hazard
Moderate explosion hazard when exposed to heat or flame. Reacts violently with nitric acid, aluminum trichloride plus phenol, aniline plus glycerine, silver perchlorate and nitrogen tetroxide. Avoid aluminum trichloride; aniline; gycerol; sulfuric acid; oxidants; phosphorus pentachloride; potassium; potassium hydroxide. Avoid sunlight, physical damage to container, freezing, and intense heat. (EPA, 1998)
Health Hazard
Can cause death due to respiratory failure. Classified as extremely toxic. The mean lethal oral dose is probably between 1 and 5 grams. Systemic effects may be delayed for a few hours. This compound is rapidly absorbed through the skin. It is a powerful methemoglobin former. Ethyl alcohol aggravates intoxication caused by nitrobenzene exposure. (EPA, 1998)
Reactivity Profile
Aluminum chloride added to NITROBENZENE containing about 5% phenol caused a violent explosion [Chem. Eng. News 31:4915. 1953]. Heating a mixture of nitrobenzene, flake sodium hydroxide and a little water led to an explosion, discussed in [Bretherick's 5th ed. 1995]. Mixed with oxidants, i.e. dinitrogen tetraoxide, fluorodinitromethane, nitric acid, peroxodisulfuric acid, sodium chlorate, tetranitromethane, uranium perchlorate, etc., forms highly sensitive explosive, [Bretherick 5th ed, 1995]. Heated mixtures of nitrobenzene and tin(IV) chloride produce exothermic decomposition with gas production [Bretherick, 5th Ed., 1995].
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

Use caution: Liquids with this reactive group classification have been known to react with the absorbents listed below. More info about absorbents, including situations to watch out for...

Response Recommendations

The Response Recommendation fields include isolation and evacuation distances, as well as recommendations for firefighting, non-fire response, protective clothing, and first aid. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 152 [Substances - Toxic (Combustible)]:

IMMEDIATE PRECAUTIONARY MEASURE: Isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids.

SPILL: Increase the immediate precautionary measure distance, in the downwind direction, as necessary.

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2020)
Firefighting
Move container from fire area if you can do it without risk. Fight fire from maximum distance. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Keep unnecessary people away; isolate hazard area and deny entry. Stay upwind; keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering them. Wear positive pressure breathing apparatus and special protective clothing. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing at the site.

Use water spray, dry chemical, foam, or carbon dioxide. (EPA, 1998)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from ERG Guide 152 [Substances - Toxic (Combustible)]:

ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames) from immediate area. Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Cover with plastic sheet to prevent spreading. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. (ERG, 2020)
Protective Clothing
Excerpt from NIOSH Pocket Guide for Nitrobenzeneexternal link:

Skin: PREVENT SKIN CONTACT - Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.

Eyes: PREVENT EYE CONTACT - Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.

Wash skin: No recommendation is made specifying the need for washing the substance from the skin (either immediately or at the end of the work shift).

Remove: WHEN WET OR CONTAMINATED - Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.

Change: DAILY - Workers whose clothing may have become contaminated should change into uncontaminated clothing before leaving the work premises.

Provide: QUICK DRENCH - Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.] (NIOSH, 2022)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
Tychem® Fabric Legend
QS = Tychem 2000 SFR
QC = Tychem 2000
SL = Tychem 4000
C3 = Tychem 5000
TF = Tychem 6000
TP = Tychem 6000 FR
RC = Tychem RESPONDER® CSM
TK = Tychem 10000
RF = Tychem 10000 FR
Testing Details
The fabric permeation data was generated for DuPont by a third party laboratory. Permeation data for industrial chemicals is obtained per ASTM F739. Normalized breakthrough times (the time at which the permeation rate exceeds 0.1 μg/cm2/min) are reported in minutes. All chemicals have been tested between approximately 20°C and 27°C unless otherwise stated. All chemicals have been tested at a concentration of greater than 95% unless otherwise stated. Chemical warfare agents (Lewisite, Sarin, Soman, Sulfur Mustard, Tabun and VX Nerve Agent) have been tested at 22°C and 50% relative humidity per military standard MIL-STD-282. "Breakthrough time" for chemical warfare agents is defined as the time when the cumulative mass which permeated through the fabric exceeds the limit in MIL-STD-282 [either 1.25 or 4.0 μg/cm2].
A Caution from DuPont
This information is based upon technical data that DuPont believes to be reliable on the date issued. It is subject to revision as additional knowledge and experience are gained. The information reflects laboratory performance of fabrics, not complete garments, under controlled conditions. It is intended for informational use by persons having technical skill for evaluation under their specific end-use conditions, at their own discretion and risk. It is the user's responsibility to determine the level of toxicity and the proper personal protective equipment needed. Anyone intending to use this information should first verify that the garment selected is suitable for the intended use. In many cases, seams and closures have shorter breakthrough times and higher permeation rates than the fabric. If fabric becomes torn,abraded or punctured, or if seams or closures fail, or if attached gloves, visors, etc. are damaged, end user should discontinue use of garment to avoid potential exposure to chemical. Since conditions of use are outside our control, DuPont makes no warranties, express or implied, including, without limitation, no warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use and assume no liability in connection with any use of this information. This information is not intended as a license to operate under or a recommendation to infringe any patent, trademark or technical information of DuPont or others covering any material or its use.
Normalized Breakthrough Times (in Minutes)
Chemical CAS Number State QS QC SL C3 TF TP RC TK RF
Nitro benzene 98-95-3 Liquid imm 59 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480
> indicates greater than.
"imm" indicates immediate; having a normalized breakthrough time of 10 minutes or less.

Special Warning from DuPont: Tychem® and Tyvek® fabrics should not be used around heat, flames, sparks or in potentially flammable or explosive environments. Only...

...Tychem® ThermoPro, Tychem® Reflector® and Tychem® TK styles 600T/601T (with aluminized outer suit) garments are designed and tested to help reduce burn injury during escape from a flash fire. Users of Tychem® ThermoPro, Tychem® Reflector® and Tychem® TK styles 600T/601T (with aluminized outer suit) garments should not knowingly enter an explosive environment. Tychem® garments with attached socks must be worn inside protective outer footwear and are not suitable as outer footwear. These attached socks do not have adequate durability or slip resistance to be worn as the outer foot covering.

(DuPont, 2022)

First Aid
Warning: Effects may be delayed. Caution is advised. Prior alcohol consumption aggravates the effects of nitrobenzene poisoning.

Note: Absorption of nitrobenzene through the skin is rapid.

Signs and Symptoms of Acute Nitrobenzene Exposure: Signs and symptoms of acute exposure to nitrobenzene may be severe and include cyanosis (blue tint to the skin and mucous membranes), tachycardia (rapid heart rate), hypotension (low blood pressure), and cardiac arrhythmias. Respiratory depression and respiratory failure may also occur. Headache, lethargy, weakness, vertigo (dizziness), severe depression, and coma may be noted. Gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea and vomiting. Urine and vomitus may have the odor of bitter almonds.

Emergency Life-Support Procedures: Acute exposure to nitrobenzene may require decontamination and life support for the victims. Emergency personnel should wear protective clothing appropriate to the type and degree of contamination. Air-purifying or supplied-air respiratory equipment should also be worn, as necessary. Rescue vehicles should carry supplies such as plastic sheeting and disposable plastic bags to assist in preventing spread of contamination.

Inhalation Exposure:
1. Move victims to fresh air. Emergency personnel should avoid self-exposure to nitrobenzene.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
4. RUSH to a health care facility.

Dermal/Eye Exposure:
1. Remove victims from exposure. Emergency personnel should avoid self- exposure to nitrobenzene.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Remove contaminated clothing as soon as possible.
4. If eye exposure has occurred, eyes must be flushed with lukewarm water for at least 15 minutes.
5. Wash exposed skin areas THOROUGHLY with soap and water.
6. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
7. RUSH to a health care facility.

Ingestion Exposure:
1. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
2. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
3. Vomiting may be induced with syrup of Ipecac. If elapsed time since ingestion of nitrobenzene is unknown or suspected to be greater than 30 minutes, do not induce vomiting and proceed to Step
4.Ipecac should not be administered to children under 6 months of age.Warning: Ingestion of nitrobenzene may result in sudden onset of seizures or loss of consciousness. Syrup of Ipecac should be administered only if victims are alert, have an active gag-reflex, and show no signs of impending seizure or coma. If ANY uncertainty exists, proceed to Step
4.The following dosages of Ipecac are recommended: children up to 1 year old, 10 mL (1/3 oz); children 1 to 12 years old, 15 mL (1/2 oz); adults, 30 mL (1 oz). Ambulate (walk) the victims and give large quantities of water. If vomiting has not occurred after 15 minutes, Ipecac may be readministered. Continue to ambulate and give water to the victims. If vomiting has not occurred within 15 minutes after second administration of Ipecac, administer activated charcoal.
4. Activated charcoal may be administered if victims are conscious and alert. Use 15 to 30 g (1/2 to 1 oz) for children, 50 to 100 g (1-3/4 to 3-1/2 oz) for adults, with 125 to 250 mL (1/2 to 1 cup) of water.
5. Promote excretion by administering a saline cathartic or sorbitol to conscious and alert victims. Children require 15 to 30 g (1/2 to 1 oz) of cathartic; 50 to 100 g (1-3/4 to 3-1/2 oz) is recommended for adults.
6. RUSH to a health care facility. (EPA, 1998)

Physical Properties

The Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • C6H5NO2
Flash Point: 190.4°F (EPA, 1998)
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): 1.8 % (EPA, 1998)
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): data unavailable
Autoignition Temperature: 924°F (USCG, 1999)
Melting Point: 42°F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Pressure: 1 mmHg at 111.92°F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): 4.3 (EPA, 1998)
Specific Gravity: 1.2037 at 68°F (EPA, 1998)
Boiling Point: 411.4°F at 760 mmHg (EPA, 1998)
Molecular Weight: 123.11 (EPA, 1998)
Water Solubility: Insoluble (<1 mg/ml at 75°F) (NTP, 1992)
Ionization Energy/Potential: 9.92 eV (NIOSH, 2022)
IDLH: 200 ppm (NIOSH, 2022)

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

No AEGL information available.

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

No ERPG information available.

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Nitrobenzene (98-95-3) 3 ppm 20 ppm 200 ppm LEL = 18000 ppm
(DOE, 2018)

Regulatory Information

The Regulatory Information fields include information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Title III Consolidated List of Lists, the U.S. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency's Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Standard List (see more about these data sources).

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
Nitrobenzene 98-95-3 10000 pounds 1000 pounds 1000 pounds 313 U169

(EPA List of Lists, 2022)

CISA Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

RELEASE THEFT SABOTAGE
Chemical of Interest CAS Number Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Nitrobenzene 98-95-3 ACG 100 pounds EXP/IEDP

(CISA, 2007)

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

No regulatory information available.

Alternate Chemical Names

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.