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Chemical Datasheet

BROMINE

8 - Corrosive 6.1 - Poison Inhalation Hazard
Chemical Identifiers | Hazards | Response Recommendations | Physical Properties | Regulatory Information | Alternate Chemical Names

Chemical Identifiers

The Chemical Identifier fields include common identification numbers, the NFPA diamond, U.S. Department of Transportation hazard labels, and a general description of the chemical. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • 7726-95-6   (BROMINE)
  • Corrosive
  • Poison Inhalation Hazard
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
Bromineexternal link
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
0
3 0
ox
Blue Health 3 Can cause serious or permanent injury.
Red Flammability 0 Will not burn under typical fire conditions.
Yellow Instability 0 Normally stable, even under fire conditions.
White Special OX Possesses oxidizing properties.
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
Bromine is a dark reddish-brown fuming liquid with a pungent odor. Denser than water and soluble in water. Hence sinks in water. Toxic by inhalation. Accelerates the burning of combustible material. It is very corrosive to tissue and to metals.

Hazards

The Hazard fields include special hazard alerts, air and water reactions, fire hazards, health hazards, a reactivity profile, and details about reactive groups assignments and potentially incompatible absorbents. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
Air & Water Reactions
Fumes in air. Soluble in water.
Fire Hazard
Will cause ignition of organic materials spontaneous ignition possible when combined with potassium, phosphorus and tin and a wide variety of other chemicals. It reacts explosively with acetylene, acrylonitrile, ammonia, dimethyl formamide, ethyl phosphine, hydrogen, isobutyrophenone, nickel carbonyl, nitrogen triiodide, ozone, oxygen difluoride, phosphorus, potassium, silver azide, sodium and sodium carbide. When heated it emits highly toxic fumes and will react with water or steam to product toxic and corrosive fumes. Bromine is incompatible with a wide variety of materials including alkali hydroxides; arsenites; ferrous, mercurous salts; hypophosphites and other oxidizable substances. Vaporizes rapidly at room temperature. (EPA, 1998)
Health Hazard
Inhalation exposure to 11-23 mg/m3 produces severe choking. 30-60 mg/m3 is extremely dangerous. 200 mg/m3 is fatal in a short time. Vapors can cause acute as well as chronic poisoning. It has cumulative properties. It is irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract. Poisoning is due to the corrosive action on the gastrointestinal tract. Nervous, circulatory and renal disturbances occur after ingestion. Ingestion of liquid can cause death due to circulatory collapse and asphyxiation from swelling of the respiratory tract. The lowest oral lethal dose reported for humans is 14 mg/kg. The lowest lethal inhalation concentration reported for humans is 1000 ppm. (EPA, 1998)
Reactivity Profile
BROMINE is a powerful oxidizing agent. Reacts vigorously with reducing reagents. Can ignite a combustible material upon contact. If heated by itself or if mixed with water or steam, highly toxic and corrosive fumes are emitted. Reacts explosively with hydrogen, diethylzinc, dimethylformamide, ammonia, trimethylamine, nitromethane, metal azides (silver or sodium azide). Mixtures with lithium or sodium are shock-sensitive. Ignites on contact with germanium, trialkyl boranes, copper and alkali metal acetylides [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 506]. Attacks most metals, including platinum and palladium [Hawley]. May react violently to form bromides upon contact with Mg, Sr, B, Al, Hg, Ti, Sn, Sb in powder or sheet form. Sodium, potassium, antimony and germanium ignite in bromine vapor and react explosively. Ignites on contact with germanium, trialkyl boranes, copper and alkali metal acetylides [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 506]. Violent reaction with methanol, ethanol, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, diethyl ether, carbonyl compounds, tetrahydrofuran, acrylonitrile, ozone, phosphorus. Methyl acetylides or carbides ignite at room temperature on contact with bromine vapor. Explosive reaction with red phosphorus, metal azides, nitromethane, silane and its homologues [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 109]. Reacts violently on contact with natural rubber [Pascal, 1960, vol. 16.1, 371].
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

Use caution: Liquids with this reactive group classification have been known to react with the absorbents listed below. More info about absorbents, including situations to watch out for...

Response Recommendations

The Response Recommendation fields include isolation and evacuation distances, as well as recommendations for firefighting, non-fire response, protective clothing, and first aid. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 154 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Non-Combustible)]:

As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids.

SPILL: See ERG Table 1 - Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances on the UN/NA 1744 datasheet.

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2016)
Firefighting
Wear positive pressure breathing apparatus and special protective clothing. Move containers from fire area. Cool containers that are exposed to flames with water.

Nonflammable, but a strong oxidizer. Extinguish with dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray, fog or foam. (EPA, 1998)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from ERG Guide 154 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Non-Combustible)]:

ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. (ERG, 2016)
Protective Clothing
Skin: Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.

Eyes: Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.

Wash skin: The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.

Remove: Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.

Change: No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the work shift.

Provide: Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection. Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.] (NIOSH, 2016)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
Tychem® Fabric Legend
QS = Tychem 2000 SFR
QC = Tychem 2000
SL = Tychem 4000
C3 = Tychem 5000
TF = Tychem 6000
TP = Tychem 6000 FR
BR = Tychem 9000
RC = Tychem RESPONDER® CSM
TK = Tychem 10000
RF = Tychem 10000 FR
Testing Details
The fabric permeation data was generated for DuPont by independent testing laboratories using ASTM F739, EN369, EN 374-3, EN ISO 6529 (method A and B) or ASTM D6978 test methods. Normalized breakthrough times (the time at which the permeation rate is equal to 0.1 µg/cm2/min) reported in minutes. All liquid chemicals have been tested between approximately 20°C and 27°C unless otherwise stated. A different temperature may have significant influence on the breakthrough time; permeation rates typically increase with temperature. All chemicals have been tested at a concentration of greater than 95% unless otherwise stated. Unless otherwise stated, permeation was measured for single chemicals. The permeation characteristics of mixtures can deviate considerably from the permeation behavior of the individual chemicals. Chemical warfare agents (Lewisite, Sarin, Soman, Sulfur Mustard, Tabun and VX Nerve Agent) have been tested at 22°C and 50% relative humidity per military standard MIL-STD-282.
Normalized Breakthrough Times (in Minutes)
Chemical CAS Number State QS QC SL C3 TF TP BR RC TK RF
Bromine (>95%) 7726-95-6 Liquid imm. imm. imm. imm. imm. imm. 15 imm.
Bromine (>95%, 10 g/m² coverage) 7726-95-6 Liquid >480
Bromine (sat. vapor) 7726-95-6 Vapor 40
> indicates greater than.
"imm." indicates immediate; having a normalized breakthrough time of 10 minutes or less.
A blank cell indicates the fabric has not been tested. The fabric may or may not offer barrier.

Special Warnings from DuPont

  1. Serged and bound seams are degraded by some hazardous liquid chemicals, such as strong acids, and should not be worn when these chemicals are present.
  2. CAUTION: This information is based upon technical data that DuPont believes to be reliable. It is subject to revision as additional knowledge and experience are gained. DuPont makes no guarantee of results and assumes no obligation or liability...
    ... in connection with this information. It is the user's responsibility to determine the level of toxicity and the proper personal protective equipment needed. The information set forth herein reflects laboratory performance of fabrics, not complete garments, under controlled conditions. It is intended for informational use by persons having technical skill for evaluation under their specific end-use conditions, at their own discretion and risk. Anyone intending to use this information should first verify that the garment selected is suitable for the intended use. In many cases, seams and closures have shorter breakthrough times and higher permeation rates than the fabric. Please contact DuPont for specific data. If fabric becomes torn, abraded or punctured, or if seams or closures fail, or if attached gloves, visors, etc. are damaged, end user should discontinue use of garment to avoid potential exposure to chemical. Since conditions of use are outside our control, we make no warranties, express or implied, including, without limitation, no warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use and assume no liability in connection with any use of this information. This information is not intended as a license to operate under or a recommendation to infringe any patent or technical information of DuPont or others covering any material or its use.

(DuPont, 2018)

First Aid
Warning: Effects may be delayed for several hours. Caution is advised.

Signs and Symptoms of Acute Bromine Exposure: Signs and symptoms of acute exposure to bromine may include hypotension (low blood pressure), tachycardia (rapid heart rate), cyanosis (blue tint to the skin and mucous membranes), and circulatory collapse. Neurological effects may include headache, dizziness, delirium, stupor, and shock. Gastrointestinal effects may include vomiting (vomitus may be blue), diarrhea, abdominal pain, and bloody stools. Nephritis with oliguria (scanty urination) and anuria (absence of urine formation) has been reported. Bromine is irritating to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes; brown discoloration of the mucous membranes, lips, and tongue may be observed. Lacrimation (tearing), photophobia (heightened sensitivity to light), nosebleeds, coughing, asphyxiation, and pulmonary edema may also occur. A burning pain in the mouth and esophagus generally follows ingestion.

Emergency Life-Support Procedures: Acute exposure to bromine may require decontamination and life support for the victims. Emergency personnel should wear protective clothing appropriate to the type and degree of contamination. Air-purifying and supplied-air respiratory equipment should also be worn, as necessary. Rescue vehicles should carry supplies such as plastic sheeting and disposable plastic bags to assist in preventing spread of contamination.

Inhalation Exposure:
1. Move victims to fresh air. Emergency personnel should avoid self-exposure to bromine.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
4. Transport to a health care facility.

Dermal/Eye Exposure:
1. Remove victims from exposure. Emergency personnel should avoid self- exposure to bromine.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Remove contaminated clothing as soon as possible.
4. If eye exposure has occurred, eyes must be flushed IMMEDIATELY with lukewarm water for at least 15 minutes.
5. IMMEDIATELY wash exposed skin areas THOROUGHLY with soap and water.
6. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
7. Transport to a health care facility.

Ingestion Exposure:
1. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
2. DO NOT induce vomiting or attempt to neutralize!
3. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
4. Activated charcoal is of no value.
5. Give the victims water or milk: children up to 1 year old, 125 mL (4 oz or 1/2 cup); children 1 to 12 years old, 200 mL (6 oz or 3/4 cup); adults, 250 mL (8 oz or 1 cup). Water or milk should be given only if victims are conscious and alert.
6. Transport to a health care facility. (EPA, 1998)

Physical Properties

The Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • Br2
Flash Point: data unavailable
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): data unavailable
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): data unavailable
Autoignition Temperature: Not flammable (USCG, 1999)
Melting Point: 19 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Pressure: 172 mm Hg at 69.08 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): 5.51 at 59 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Specific Gravity: 3.1023 at 77 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Boiling Point: 139.2 ° F at 760 mm Hg (EPA, 1998)
Molecular Weight: 159.81 (EPA, 1998)
Water Solubility: 4 % (NIOSH, 2016)
Ionization Potential: 10.55 eV (NIOSH, 2016)
IDLH: 3 ppm (NIOSH, 2016)

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

Final AEGLs for Bromine (7726-95-6)
Exposure Period AEGL-1 AEGL-2 AEGL-3
10 minutes 0.033 ppm 0.55 ppm 19 ppm
30 minutes 0.033 ppm 0.33 ppm 12 ppm
60 minutes 0.033 ppm 0.24 ppm 8.5 ppm
4 hours 0.033 ppm 0.13 ppm 4.5 ppm
8 hours 0.033 ppm 0.095 ppm 3.3 ppm
(NAC/NRC, 2017)

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

Chemical ERPG-1 ERPG-2 ERPG-3
Bromine (7726-95-6) 0.1 ppm star-in-circle icon indicates that odor should be detectable near ERPG-1. 0.5 ppm 5 ppm
star-in-circle icon indicates that odor should be detectable near ERPG-1.
(AIHA, 2016)

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Bromine (7726-95-6) 0.033 ppm 0.24 ppm 8.5 ppm
(DOE, 2016)

Regulatory Information

The Regulatory Information fields include information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Title III Consolidated List of Lists, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Standard List (see more about these data sources).

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
Bromine 7726-95-6 500 pounds 500 pounds 313 10000 pounds

(EPA List of Lists, 2015)

DHS Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

RELEASE THEFT SABOTAGE
Chemical of Interest CAS Number Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Bromine 7726-95-6 1.00 % 10000 pounds toxic

(DHS, 2007)

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

Chemical Name CAS Number Threshold Quantity (TQ)
Bromine 7726-95-6 1500 pounds

(OSHA, 2011)

Alternate Chemical Names

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.