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Chemical Datasheet

PHENOBARBITAL

6.1 - Poison
Chemical Identifiers | Hazards | Response Recommendations | Physical Properties | Regulatory Information | Alternate Chemical Names

Chemical Identifiers

The Chemical Identifier fields include common identification numbers, the NFPA diamond, U.S. Department of Transportation hazard labels, and a general description of the chemical. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • 50-06-6
  • Poison
none
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
none none
NFPA 704
data unavailable
General Description
PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: Odorless white crystalline powder or colorless crystals. A saturated aqueous solution is acid to litmus (approximately pH 5). Slightly bitter taste. (NTP, 1992)

Hazards

The Hazard fields include special hazard alerts, air and water reactions, fire hazards, health hazards, a reactivity profile, and details about reactive groups assignments and potentially incompatible absorbents. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
none
Air & Water Reactions
Sensitive to hydrolysis. Alkaline solutions react more rapidly than acidic solutions. At pH 7 and 176°F, has a half life of 74 hours. Insoluble in water.
Fire Hazard
This chemical is combustible. (NTP, 1992)
Health Hazard
SYMPTOMS: Symptoms of exposure to this class of compounds via ingestion include sedation, nystagmus, ataxia, irritability and hyperexcitability in children, exfoliative dermatitis and hypoprothrombinemia in the neonate. Other symptoms via ingestion include confusion and restlessness in the elderly or in the presence of pain; respiratory depression, occasional allergic reactions, particularly affecting the skin; maculopapular skin rash, fixed-drug eruptions purpura, photosensitivity, erythema multiforme (the Stevens-Johnson syndrome), toxic epidermal necrolysis, hypothermia with associated pyrexia during recovery; hepatitis, cholestasis, nephritis, hepatic dysfunction and shoulder-hand syndrome. Ingestion may cause agitation in the elderly, hemorrhage in the neonate, morbilliform or scarlatiniform rash, megaloblastic anemia and osteomalacia. Ingestion can also cause sleepiness, unsteadiness, mental confusion, slow and shallow respiration, flaccid muscles, hypotension, cyanosis, hyperthermia, absent reflexes and coma. The duration of coma is dependent on the dose. Cerebral edema contributes to the persistence of coma. If coma persists, moist rales are heard in the lower lung fields, indicating pulmonary edema. Atelectasis or aspiration pneumonia with signs of lung consolidation and fever can also occur. Carbon dioxide retention under these conditions can cause acidosis. Death may occur from pneumonia, pulmonary edema or refractory hypotension. Other symptoms of exposure may include drowsiness, headache, irregular respiration and central nervous system effects Inhalation of the dust may cause irritation of the upper respiratory tract. Hypnosis and excitement have been reported. Other reported symptoms include delirium and deep unconsciousness. It can cause poor judgment and hangover. Chronic symptoms include effects on neurological and pyschic functions, disorientation, skin rash, ataxia, dizziness, depression an foliate deficiency. Chronic exposure may also result in drowsiness, emotional lability, irritability, neglect of personal appearance and other behavior disturbances. Other symptoms of chronic exposure are nystagmus, tremor, mild changes in mental condition such as loss of memory, inability to concentrate, giddiness, depression and dullness of mental perception, and precipitation of acute porphyria. Overdosage may cause hemorrhagic and erythematous bullae, respiratory depression, cardiovascular depression, hypotension and shock leading to renal failure; prolonged coma and death due t respiratory or circulatory failure. Absent bowel sounds are a sign of severe poisoning and their return sometimes indicates further absorption of any remaining compound in the gastrointestinal tract with resultant relapse. Dangerous central nervous system effects occur in children at 10 mg/kg. It causes respiratory depression in the neonate and diminished milk flow in the nursing mother. Eye effects through ingestion include slow eye reaction to light, mydriasis, miosis, bilateral ptosis, rapid fluttering of the eyelids, disturbance of eye movement, weakness of convergence, weakness of vertical gaze and of individual extraocular muscles and transient loss of vision following coma. There has been one case of spontaneous abortion. Exposure to this compound may also cause somnolence, motor activity changes, pulmonary changes, allergic dermatitis, fever, developmental abnormalities of the central nervous system, body wall, musculoskeletal, respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital systems. It may also cause jaundice. This compound may increase the metabolism of other drugs. Pyschic or physical dependence may occur with continued use. Abrupt withdrawal may result in severe abstinence syndrome which includes grand mal seizures and delirium.

ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS: This compound is highly toxic by ingestion. It is also toxic if absorbed through the skin. It is harmful by inhalation and may cause irritation by skin or eye contact. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides. (NTP, 1992)
Reactivity Profile
PHENOBARBITAL is also sensitive to prolonged exposure to light. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Forms a complex of reduced solubility with macrogol 4000. Able to form metal derivatives (NTP, 1992).
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

No information available.

Response Recommendations

The Response Recommendation fields include isolation and evacuation distances, as well as recommendations for firefighting, non-fire response, protective clothing, and first aid. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 154 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Non-Combustible)]:

As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids.

SPILL: Increase, in the downwind direction, as necessary, the isolation distance shown above.

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2016)
Firefighting
Fires involving this material can be controlled with a dry chemical, carbon dioxide or Halon extinguisher. A water spray may also be use. (NTP, 1992)
Non-Fire Response
SMALL SPILLS AND LEAKAGE: Should a spill occur while you are handling this chemical, FIRST REMOVE ALL SOURCES OF IGNITION, then you should dampen the solid spill material with 60-70% ethanol and transfer the dampened material to a suitable container. Use absorbent paper dampened with 60-70% ethanol to pick up any remaining material. Seal the absorbent paper, and any of your clothes, which may be contaminated, in a vapor-tight plastic bag for eventual disposal. Solvent wash all contaminated surfaces with 60-70% ethanol followed by washing with a soap and water solution. Do not reenter the contaminated area until the Safety Officer (or other responsible person) has verified that the area has been properly cleaned.

STORAGE PRECAUTIONS: You should protect this material from exposure to light and moisture. Keep it away from oxidizing materials and store it under refrigerated temperatures. If possible, it would be prudent to store this compound under inert atmosphere. This compound is a Schedule IV DEA Controlled Substance and is to be stored according to State and Federal Regulations. Refer to Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 Part 1300 to End. (NTP, 1992)
Protective Clothing
RECOMMENDED RESPIRATOR: Where the neat test chemical is weighed and diluted, wear a NIOSH-approved half face respirator equipped with a combination filter cartridge, i.e. organic vapor/acid gas/HEPA (specific for organic vapors, HCl, acid gas, SO2 and a high efficiency particulate filter). (NTP, 1992)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
No information available.
First Aid
EYES: First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center. Do not put any ointments, oils, or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop.

SKIN: IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. If symptoms such as redness or irritation develop, IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital for treatment.

INHALATION: IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air. IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat, or chest) develop. Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. Whenever possible, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) should be used; if not available, use a level of protection greater than or equal to that advised under Protective Clothing.

INGESTION: DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center. Be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital if advised by a physician. If the victim is convulsing or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth, ensure that the victim's airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with the head lower than the body. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital.

OTHER: Since this chemical is a known or suspected carcinogen you should contact a physician for advice regarding the possible long term health effects and potential recommendation for medical monitoring. Recommendations from the physician will depend upon the specific compound, its chemical, physical and toxicity properties, the exposure level, length of exposure, and the route of exposure. (NTP, 1992)

Physical Properties

The Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • C12H12N2O3
Flash Point: 345 ° F (NTP, 1992)
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): data unavailable
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): data unavailable
Autoignition Temperature: data unavailable
Melting Point: 345 to 352 ° F (NTP, 1992)
Vapor Pressure: data unavailable
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): data unavailable
Specific Gravity: data unavailable
Boiling Point: data unavailable
Molecular Weight: 232.24 (NTP, 1992)
Water Solubility: less than 0.1 mg/mL at 57° F (NTP, 1992)
Ionization Potential: data unavailable
IDLH: data unavailable

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

No AEGL information available.

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

No ERPG information available.

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

No PAC information available.

Regulatory Information

The Regulatory Information fields include information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Title III Consolidated List of Lists, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Standard List (see more about these data sources).

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

No regulatory information available.

DHS Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

No regulatory information available.

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

No regulatory information available.

Alternate Chemical Names

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.