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Chemical Datasheet

PHOSPHORUS, WHITE OR YELLOW

4.2 - Spontaneously combustible 6.1 - Poison
Chemical Identifiers | Hazards | Response Recommendations | Physical Properties | Regulatory Information | Alternate Chemical Names

Chemical Identifiers

The Chemical Identifier fields include common identification numbers, the NFPA diamond U.S. Department of Transportation hazard labels, and a general description of the chemical. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • 12185-10-3   (yellow or white)
  • 7723-14-0   (red, violet, and black)
  • Spontaneously Combustible
  • Poison
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
Phosphorus (yellow)external link
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
4
4 2
Blue Health 4 Can be lethal.
Red Flammability 4 Burns readily. Rapidly or completely vaporizes at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperature.
Yellow Instability 2 Readily undergoes violent chemical changes at elevated temperatures and pressures.
White Special
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
A soft waxy solid with a sharp pungent odor similar to garlic. Insoluble in water and ethyl alcohol. Soluble in carbon disulfide. Shipped as a solid or liquid in an atmosphere of inert gas or as a solid under water. Barely soluble in water and denser than water. Hence, sinks in water. Uses include munitions manufacture, pyrotechnics, explosives, smoke bombs, artificial fertilizers, and rat poisons. Density approximately 15.2 lb / gal.

Hazards

The Hazard fields include special hazard alerts air and water reactions, fire hazards, health hazards, a reactivity profile, and details about reactive groups assignments and potentially incompatible absorbents. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. Emits a weak green light and gives off white acidic fumes of phosphorus oxides when exposed to air. Ignites at 30°C in moist air, higher temperatures are required for ignition in dry air [Merck 11th ed. 1989]. Readily ignites in air if warmed, finely divided, or if held under conditions in which the heat of reaction can build up. Contact with finely divided charcoal or lampblack promotes ignition, probably by the absorbed oxygen. Contact with amalgamated aluminum also promotes ignition [Mellor 1940 and 1971].
Fire Hazard
Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Fumes from burning phosphorus are highly irritating.

Behavior in Fire: Intense white smoke is formed. (USCG, 1999)
Health Hazard
Solid or liquid causes severe burns of skin. If ingested, causes nausea, vomiting, jaundice, low blood pressure, depression, delirium, coma, death. Symptoms after ingestion may be delayed for from a few hours to 3 days. (USCG, 1999)
Reactivity Profile
WHITE PHOSPHORUS is reacts readily with most oxidizing agents. Often ignites on contact with air; storage under water prevents this reaction. Submersion in water stops the white phosphorus/air reaction which however usually resumes when the water is removed. Reacts violently with bromine trifluoride, even at 10°C [Mellor 2:113. 1946-47]. Reacts explosively on contact with bromoazide. Reacts explosively with selenium oxychloride, evolving light and heat [Mellor 10:906. 1946-47]. Can also serve as an oxidizing agent---reacts incandescently if heated with thorium [Svenska Akad. 1829. p. 1].
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

No information available.

Response Recommendations

The Response Recommendation fields include isolation and evacuation distances, as well as recommendations for firefighting, non-fire response, protective clothing, and first aid. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 136 [Substances - Spontaneously Combustible - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Air-Reactive)]:

IMMEDIATE PRECAUTIONARY MEASURE: Isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids.

SPILL: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 300 meters (1000 feet).

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2020)
Firefighting
White/Yellow: Deluge with water, taking care not to scatter, until fire is extinguished and phosphorus has solidified, then cover with wet sand or dirt. Red: Flood with water and when fire is extingushed, cover with wet sand or dirt. Extreme caution should be used during clean up since reignition may occur. Under certain conditions at high temperature, red phosphorus reverts to more hazardous white phosphorus.

Small fires: dry chemical, sand, water spray, or foam. Large fires: water spray, fog, or foam. Cool containers that are exposed to flames with water from the side until well after fire is out. (EPA, 1998)
Non-Fire Response
Caution : Flammable solid. Avoid sources of extreme heat or ignition including sparks or fire. White (or yellow) phosphorus may spontaneously ignite on contact with damp surfaces, including water or skin. Phosphorus will liberate toxic gases and vapors when heated.

Keep unnecessary people away; isolate hazard area and deny entry. Stay upwind; keep out of low areas. Any clothing which becomes contaminated should be removed immediately. (EPA, 1998)
Protective Clothing
For emergency situations, wear a positive pressure, pressure-demand, full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) or pressure- demand supplied air respirator with escape SCBA and a fully-encapsulating, chemical resistant suit. (EPA, 1998)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
No information available.
First Aid
Signs and Symptoms of Acute Phosphorus Exposure: Signs and symptoms of acute exposure to phosphorus may be severe and occur in three stages. The first stage will involve burns, pain, shock, intense thirst, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, and "smoking stools." The breath and feces may have garlicky odor. The second stage will be a symptom-free period of several days in which the patient appears to be recovering. The third stage may be severe and include nausea, bloody vomitus, diarrhea (may be bloody), jaundice, liver enlargement with tenderness, renal damage, hematuria (bloody urine), and either oliguria (little urine formation) or anuria (no urine formation). Headache, convulsions, delirium, coma, cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiovascular collapse may also occur. If phosphorus contacts the eyes, then severe irritation and burns, blepharospasm (spasmodic winking), lacrimation (tearing), and photophobia (heightened sensitivity to light) may occur. Eye contact may lead to a total destruction of the eyes. Victims may experience spontaneous hemorrhaging of phosphorus-contaminated skin and mucous membranes.

Emergency Life-Support Procedures: Acute exposure to phosphorus may require decontamination and life support for the victims. Emergency personnel should wear protective clothing appropriate to the type and degree of contamination. Air-purifying or supplied-air respiratory equipment should also be worn, as necessary. Rescue vehicles should carry supplies such as plastic sheeting and disposable plastic bags to assist in preventing spread of contamination.

Inhalation Exposure:
1. Move victims to fresh air. Emergency personnel should avoid self-exposure to phosphorus.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
4. RUSH to a health care facility.

Dermal/Eye Exposure:
1. Remove victims from exposure. Emergency personnel should avoid self- exposure to phosphorus.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Remove contaminated clothing as soon as possible.
4. Brush nonadherent phosphorus from skin areas, then flush skin with water. Immerse exposed skin areas in water or cover with a wet dressing.
5. If eye exposure has occurred, eyes must be flushed with lukewarm water for AT LEAST 15 MINUTES. Keep exposed eyes covered with wet compresses.
6. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
7. RUSH to a health care facility.

Ingestion Exposure:
1. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
2. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
3. Activated charcoal may be administered if victims are conscious and alert. Use 15 to 30 g (1/2 to 1 oz) for children, 50 to 100 g (1-3/4 to 3-1/2 oz) for adults, with 125 to 250 mL (1/2 to 1 cup) of water.
4. Promote excretion by administering a saline cathartic or sorbitol to conscious and alert victims. Children require 15 to 30 g (1/2 to 1 oz) of cathartic; 50 to 100 g (1-3/4 to 3-1/2 oz) is recommended for adults.
5. Ambulate (walk) and give water to the victims.
6. RUSH to a health care facility. (EPA, 1998)

Physical Properties

The Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • P4
Flash Point: data unavailable
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): data unavailable
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): data unavailable
Autoignition Temperature: 86°F (USCG, 1999)
Melting Point: 111.4°F (USCG, 1999)
Vapor Pressure: 0.03 mmHg (NIOSH, 2022)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): data unavailable
Specific Gravity: 1.82 at 68°F (USCG, 1999)
Boiling Point: 535.5°F at 760 mmHg (USCG, 1999)
Molecular Weight: 123.89 (USCG, 1999)
Water Solubility: 0.0003 % (NIOSH, 2022)
Ionization Energy/Potential: data unavailable
IDLH: 5 mg/m3 (NIOSH, 2022)

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

No AEGL information available.

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

No ERPG information available.

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Phosphorus (yellow); (White phosphorus) (12185-10-3) 0.3 mg/m3 0.91 mg/m3 5.5 mg/m3
Phosphorus (red, violet, and black) (7723-14-0) 0.27 mg/m3 3 mg/m3 18 mg/m3
(DOE, 2018)

Regulatory Information

The Regulatory Information fields include information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Title III Consolidated List of Lists, the U.S. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency's Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Standard List (see more about these data sources).

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
Phosphorus 7723-14-0 100 pounds 1 pound 1 pound
Phosphorus (yellow or white) 12185-10-3 313
Phosphorus (yellow or white) 7723-14-0 100 pounds 1 pound 1 pound

(EPA List of Lists, 2022)

CISA Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

RELEASE THEFT SABOTAGE
Chemical of Interest CAS Number Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Phosphorus 7723-14-0 ACG 400 pounds EXP/IEDP

(CISA, 2007)

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

No regulatory information available.

Alternate Chemical Names

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.