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Chemical Datasheet

PHOSPHINE

2.3 - Poisonous gas 2.1 - Flammable gas
Chemical Identifiers | Hazards | Response Recommendations | Physical Properties | Regulatory Information | Alternate Chemical Names

Chemical Identifiers

The Chemical Identifier fields include common identification numbers, the NFPA diamond, U.S. Department of Transportation hazard labels, and a general description of the chemical. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • 7803-51-2   (PHOSPHINE)
  • Poison Gas
  • Flammable Gas
none
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
Phosphineexternal link
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
4
4 2
Blue Health 4 Can be lethal.
Red Flammability 4 Burns readily. Rapidly or completely vaporizes at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperature.
Yellow Instability 2 Readily undergoes violent chemical changes at elevated temperatures and pressures.
White Special
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
A colorless gas with a disagreeable odor of fish or garlic. Boiling point -126°F; freezing point -209°F. Very toxic by inhalation at extremely low concentrations. Prolonged heating may cause containers to rupture violently and rocket.

Rate of onset: Immediate & Delayed (Lungs)

Persistence: Minutes - hours

Odor threshold: 0.9 ppm

Source/use/other hazard: Insecticide; used in manufacture of flame retardants and incendiaries.

Hazards

The Hazard fields include special hazard alerts, air and water reactions, fire hazards, health hazards, a reactivity profile, and details about reactive groups assignments and potentially incompatible absorbents. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. Usually ignites spontaneously in air. Burns with a luminous flame [Merck 11th ed. 1989]. Insoluble in water.
Fire Hazard
Phosphine can explode with powerful oxidizers. The gas is heavier than air and may travel along the ground to an ignition source. Container may explode in heat of fire. When heated to decomposition, it emits highly toxic fumes of phosphorus oxides. Reacts violently with: air; boron trichloride; bromine; chlorine; chlorine monoxide; nitric acid; nitric oxide; nitrous oxide; nitrogen trioxide; silver nitrate; nitrous acid; mercuric nitrate; nitrogen trichloride; oxygen; and (potassium plus ammonia). Stable up to 131F. May become unstable at high temperatures. (EPA, 1998)
Health Hazard
Phosphine is a super- toxic gas with a probable oral lethal dose of 5 mg/kg or 7 drops for a 150 pound person. An air concentration of 3 ppm is safe for long term exposure, 500 ppm is lethal in 30 minutes, and a concentration of 1,000 ppm is lethal after a few breaths. (EPA, 1998)
Reactivity Profile
PHOSPHINE is a reducing agent. Ignites spontaneously in air when pure [Sidgwick, 1950, p. 729]. Liquefied phosphine can be detonated [Rust, 1948, p. 301]. Ignites or reacts violently with boron trichloride, dichlorine oxide, halogens (bromine, chlorine, iodine), metal nitrates, nitrogen oxides, nitric acid, nitrous acid, nitrogen trichloride [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 1562]. Forms explosive mixtures with even small amounts of oxygen. Autoignites at low pressures [Fisher, E. O. et al., Angew. Chem., 1968, 7, p. 136].
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

Use caution: Liquids with this reactive group classification have been known to react with the absorbent listed below. More info about absorbents, including situations to watch out for...

Response Recommendations

The Response Recommendation fields include isolation and evacuation distances, as well as recommendations for firefighting, non-fire response, protective clothing, and first aid. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 119 [Gases - Toxic - Flammable]:

As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 100 meters (330 feet) in all directions.

SPILL: See ERG Table 1 - Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances on the UN/NA 2199 datasheet.

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 1600 meters (1 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 1600 meters (1 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2016)
Firefighting
Wear full protective clothing including self-contained breathing apparatus, rubber gloves, boots, and bands around legs, arms, and waist. No skin surface should be exposed. For massive fires in cargo areas, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Move containers from fire area.

If material is on fire or involved in a fire, do not extinguish unless flow can be stopped; use water in flooding quantities as fog; cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water; apply water from as far a distance as possible; solid streams of water may be ineffective; use "alcohol" foam, carbon dioxide or dry chemical. (EPA, 1998)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from ERG Guide 119 [Gases - Toxic - Flammable]:

ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Fully encapsulating, vapor-protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks with no fire. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Do not direct water at spill or source of leak. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Avoid allowing water runoff to contact spilled material. FOR CHLOROSILANES, use AFFF alcohol-resistant medium-expansion foam to reduce vapors. If possible, turn leaking containers so that gas escapes rather than liquid. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Isolate area until gas has dispersed. (ERG, 2016)
Protective Clothing
Skin: Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin from becoming frozen from contact with the liquid or from contact with vessels containing the liquid.

Eyes: Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact with the liquid that could result in burns or tissue damage from frostbite.

Wash skin: No recommendation is made specifying the need for washing the substance from the skin (either immediately or at the end of the work shift).

Remove: Work clothing that becomes wet should be immediately removed due to its flammability hazard(i.e. for liquids with flash point < 100°F)

Change: No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the work shift.

Provide: Quick drench facilities and/or eyewash fountains should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is any possibility of exposure to liquids that are extremely cold or rapidly evaporating. (NIOSH, 2016)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
Tychem® Fabric Legend
QS = Tychem 2000 SFR
QC = Tychem 2000
SL = Tychem 4000
C3 = Tychem 5000
TF = Tychem 6000
TP = Tychem 6000 FR
BR = Tychem 9000
RC = Tychem RESPONDER® CSM
TK = Tychem 10000
RF = Tychem 10000 FR
Testing Details
The fabric permeation data was generated for DuPont by independent testing laboratories using ASTM F739, EN369, EN 374-3, EN ISO 6529 (method A and B) or ASTM D6978 test methods. Normalized breakthrough times (the time at which the permeation rate is equal to 0.1 µg/cm2/min) reported in minutes. All liquid chemicals have been tested between approximately 20°C and 27°C unless otherwise stated. A different temperature may have significant influence on the breakthrough time; permeation rates typically increase with temperature. All chemicals have been tested at a concentration of greater than 95% unless otherwise stated. Unless otherwise stated, permeation was measured for single chemicals. The permeation characteristics of mixtures can deviate considerably from the permeation behavior of the individual chemicals. Chemical warfare agents (Lewisite, Sarin, Soman, Sulfur Mustard, Tabun and VX Nerve Agent) have been tested at 22°C and 50% relative humidity per military standard MIL-STD-282.
Normalized Breakthrough Times (in Minutes)
Chemical CAS Number State QS QC SL C3 TF TP BR RC TK RF
Phosphine (>95%) 7803-51-2 Vapor imm. imm. >480 >480 >480 >480
> indicates greater than.
"imm." indicates immediate; having a normalized breakthrough time of 10 minutes or less.
A blank cell indicates the fabric has not been tested. The fabric may or may not offer barrier.

Special Warnings from DuPont

  1. Serged and bound seams are degraded by some hazardous liquid chemicals, such as strong acids, and should not be worn when these chemicals are present.
  2. CAUTION: This information is based upon technical data that DuPont believes to be reliable. It is subject to revision as additional knowledge and experience are gained. DuPont makes no guarantee of results and assumes no obligation or liability...
    ... in connection with this information. It is the user's responsibility to determine the level of toxicity and the proper personal protective equipment needed. The information set forth herein reflects laboratory performance of fabrics, not complete garments, under controlled conditions. It is intended for informational use by persons having technical skill for evaluation under their specific end-use conditions, at their own discretion and risk. Anyone intending to use this information should first verify that the garment selected is suitable for the intended use. In many cases, seams and closures have shorter breakthrough times and higher permeation rates than the fabric. Please contact DuPont for specific data. If fabric becomes torn, abraded or punctured, or if seams or closures fail, or if attached gloves, visors, etc. are damaged, end user should discontinue use of garment to avoid potential exposure to chemical. Since conditions of use are outside our control, we make no warranties, express or implied, including, without limitation, no warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use and assume no liability in connection with any use of this information. This information is not intended as a license to operate under or a recommendation to infringe any patent or technical information of DuPont or others covering any material or its use.

(DuPont, 2018)

First Aid
Warning: Effects may be delayed for several hours. Caution is advised.

Signs and Symptoms of Acute Phosphine Exposure: Acute exposure to phosphine usually results in headache, cough, tightness and pain in the chest, shortness of breath, dizziness, lethargy, and stupor. Fatigue, muscle pain, chills, tremors, incoordination, seizures, and coma may be seen. Pulmonary edema and cardiac arrhythmias are common. Gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Renal (kidney) damage, hepatic (liver) damage, and jaundice may also occur. Contact with phosphine may burn the skin and eyes.

Emergency Life-Support Procedures: Acute exposure to phosphine may require decontamination and life support for the victims. Emergency personnel should wear protective clothing appropriate to the type and degree of contamination. Air-purifying or supplied-air respiratory equipment should also be worn, as necessary. Rescue vehicles should carry supplies such as plastic sheeting and disposable plastic bags to assist in preventing spread of contamination.

Inhalation Exposure:
1. Move victims to fresh air. Emergency personnel should avoid self-exposure to phosphine.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
4. Transport to a health care facility.

Dermal/Eye Exposure:
1. Remove victims from exposure. Emergency personnel should avoid self- exposure to phosphine.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Remove contaminated clothing as soon as possible.
4. If eye exposure has occurred, eyes must be flushed with lukewarm water for at least 15 minutes.
5. Wash exposed skin areas twice with soap and water.
6. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
7. Transport to a health care facility.

Ingestion Exposure: No information is available. (EPA, 1998)

Physical Properties

The Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • H3P
Flash Point: data unavailable
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): 1.79 % Dangerous fire hazard from spontaneous chemical reaction. (EPA, 1998)
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): Dangerous fire hazard from spontaneous chemical reaction. (EPA, 1998)
Autoignition Temperature: data unavailable
Melting Point: -207 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Pressure: 760 mm Hg at -125.5 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): 1.17 (EPA, 1998)
Specific Gravity: 0.746 at -130 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Boiling Point: -126 ° F at 760 mm Hg (EPA, 1998)
Molecular Weight: 34 (EPA, 1998)
Water Solubility: Slight (NIOSH, 2016)
Ionization Potential: 9.96 eV (NIOSH, 2016)
IDLH: 50 ppm (NIOSH, 2016)

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

Final AEGLs for Phosphine (7803-51-2)
Exposure Period AEGL-1 AEGL-2 AEGL-3
10 minutes NR 4 ppm 7.2 ppm
30 minutes NR 4 ppm 7.2 ppm
60 minutes NR 2 ppm 3.6 ppm
4 hours NR 0.5 ppm 0.9 ppm
8 hours NR 0.25 ppm 0.45 ppm
NR = Not recommended
(NAC/NRC, 2017)

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

Chemical ERPG-1 ERPG-2 ERPG-3
Phosphine (7803-51-2) NA 0.5 ppm 5 ppm
NA = not appropriate.
(AIHA, 2016)

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Phosphine (7803-51-2) 1 ppm 2 ppm 3.6 ppm LEL = 16000 ppm
(DOE, 2016)

Regulatory Information

The Regulatory Information fields include information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Title III Consolidated List of Lists, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Standard List (see more about these data sources).

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
Phosphine 7803-51-2 500 pounds 100 pounds 100 pounds 313 P096 5000 pounds

(EPA List of Lists, 2015)

DHS Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

RELEASE THEFT SABOTAGE
Chemical of Interest CAS Number Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Phosphine 7803-51-2 1.00 % 10000 pounds flammable 0.67 % 15 pounds WME

(DHS, 2007)

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

Chemical Name CAS Number Threshold Quantity (TQ)
Phosphine (Hydrogen Phosphide) 7803-51-2 100 pounds

(OSHA, 2011)

Alternate Chemical Names

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.