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Chemical Datasheet

PHOSGENE

2.3 - Poisonous gas 8 - Corrosive material
Chemical Identifiers | Hazards | Response Recommendations | Physical Properties | Regulatory Information | Alternate Chemical Names

Chemical Identifiers

CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service registry number. Unique identification number assigned to this chemical by the American Chemical Society.

UN/NA Number - The United Nations-North America number (also called UN number or DOT number). 4-digit number identifying an individual chemical or group of chemicals with similar characteristics. Required on shipping papers; often shown on placards or labels. This numbering system was developed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, and then became the UN standard system for classifying hazardous materials.

DOT Hazard Label - U.S. Department of Transportation hazard warning label for the chemical (such as flammable liquid or corrosive). This label must be displayed on shipped packages, railroad tank cars, and tank trucks according to specifications described in 49 CFR 172.

CHRIS Code - 3-letter code used by the U.S. Coast Guard to identify individual chemicals included in its CHRIS (Chemical Hazards Response Information System) manual.

NFPA 704 - Text description of the diamond-shaped placard, which contains codes indicating the level of the chemical's health, flammability, and instability hazards, along with special hazards such as water- and air-reactivity. See a guide to the NFPA diamond.

General Description - Brief description of the chemical's general appearance, behavior, and hazardousness.

List of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number DOT Hazard Label CHRIS Code
  • 75-44-5   (PHOSGENE)
  • Poison Gas
  • Corrosive
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
0
4 1
Blue Health 4 Can be lethal.
Red Flammability 0 Will not burn under typical fire conditions.
Yellow Instability 1 Normally stable but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures.
White Special
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
A colorless gas or very low-boiling, volatile liquid (b.p. 8.3°C, 48°F) with an odor of new-mown hay or green corn. Extremely toxic. Warning properties of the gas inhaled are slight, death may occur within 36 hours (Lewis, 3rd ed., 1993, p. 1027). Prolonged exposure of the containers to intense heat may result in their violent rupturing and rocketing.

Rate of onset: Immediate & Delayed (Lungs)

Persistence: Minutes - hours

Odor threshold: 0.5 ppm

Source/use/other hazard: Dye, pesticide, and other industries; history as war gas, corrosive/irritating
.

Hazards

Reactivity Alerts - Special alerts if the chemical is especially reactive (see list of reactivity alerts).

Air & Water Reactions - Special alerts if the chemical reacts with air, water, or moisture.

Fire Hazard - Description of the chemical's fire hazards (such as flammability, explosion risk, or byproducts that may evolve if the chemical is burned).

Health Hazard - Description of the chemical's health hazards (such as toxicity, flammability, or corrosivity).

Reactivity Profile - Description of the chemical's potential reactivity with other chemicals, air, and water. Also includes any other intrinsic reactive hazards (such as polymerizable or peroxidizable).

Reactive Groups - List of reactive groups that the chemical is assigned to, based on its known chemistry. Reactive groups are categories of chemicals that react in similar ways because their chemical structures are similar. Reactive groups are used to predict reactivity when you add a chemical to MyChemicals. Read more about reactive groups.

Potentially Incompatible Absorbents - Absorbents are products that can be used to soak up liquids from spills. However, some absorbents can react with particular chemicals (that is, they are incompatible), so caution should be used in selecting the correct absorbent for your situation. This section provides a list of potentially incompatible absorbents that have been known to react with liquids assigned to one or more of the reactive groups listed on this datasheet. Read more about absorbents, including situations to watch out for.

List of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
none
Air & Water Reactions
Decomposes slowly in water or moist air (or when inhaled) to form very corrosive hydrogen chloride gas (hydrochloric acid) and carbon monoxide.
Fire Hazard
When heated to decomposition or on contact with water or steam, it will react to produce toxic and corrosive fumes. Reacts violently with aluminum; tert-butyl azido formate; 2,4-hexadiyn-1,6-diol; isopropyl alcohol; potassium; sodium; hexafluoro isopropylidene; amino lithium; lithium. Stable in steel containers if dry. Avoid moisture. (EPA, 1998)
Health Hazard
Phosgene is a lung toxicant that causes damage to the capillaries, bronchioles and alveoli of the lungs, by decomposition to hydrochloric acid. There is little immediate irritant effect upon the respiratory tract, and the warning properties of the gas are therefore very slight. Pulmonary edema, bronchopneumonia and occasionally lung abscesses develop. Degenerative changes in the nerves have been reported as later developments. A concentration of 25 ppm is dangerous for exposures lasting 30-60 minutes and 50 ppm is rapidly fatal after even short exposure. (EPA, 1998)
Reactivity Profile
PHOSGENE is water reactive. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, alcohols, amines, alkali. May react violently with aluminum, alkali metals (lithium, potassium, sodium), alcohols (isopropyl alcohol, 2,4-hexadiyn-1,6-diol), sodium azide [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 134]. May react vigorously or explosively if mixed with diisopropyl ether or other ethers in the presence of trace amounts of metal salts [J. Haz. Mat., 1981, 4, 291]. Phosgene reacts with phosphate or silicate salts, yielding water-reactive and toxic POCl3 with phosphates (Dunlap, K.L. 2005. Phosgene. In Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

Use caution: Liquids with this reactive group classification have been known to react with the absorbents listed below. More info about absorbents, including situations to watch out for...

Response Recommendations

Isolation and Evacuation - Isolation and evacuation distance recommendations from the Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG).

Firefighting - Response recommendations if the chemical is on fire (or near a fire).

Non-Fire Response - Response recommendations if the chemical isn't on fire (or near a fire).

Protective Clothing - Recommendations for protective gear.

Dupont Tychem® Suit Fabrics - A table of normalized breakthrough times for DuPont Tychem suit fabrics for the chemical, if available.

First Aid - Recommended first aid treatment for people exposed to the chemical.

List of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from GUIDE 125 [Gases - Corrosive]:

As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 100 meters (330 feet) in all directions.

SPILL: See ERG Table 1 - Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances on the UN/NA 1076 datasheet.

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 1600 meters (1 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 1600 meters (1 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2012)
Firefighting
If necessary to stop flow of gas, use water spray to protect the personnel effecting shutoff. Sodium hydroxide or anhydrous ammonia have been used to neutralize phosgene.

Nonflammable. For small fires, use dry chemical or carbon dioxide. Use water spray, fog, or foam for larger fires. Do not get water inside containers. Move container from fire area if you can do so without risk. Stay away from the ends of tanks, and cool exposed containers with water until well after the fire is out. Isolate the area until gas has dispersed. (EPA, 1998)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from GUIDE 125 [Gases - Corrosive]:

Fully encapsulating, vapor protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks with no fire. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. If possible, turn leaking containers so that gas escapes rather than liquid. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Do not direct water at spill or source of leak. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Avoid allowing water runoff to contact spilled material. Isolate area until gas has dispersed. (ERG, 2012)
Protective Clothing
Skin: If chemical is in liquid form, wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.

Eyes: If chemical is in liquid form, wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.

Wash skin: If the chemical is in liquid form, the worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.

Remove: If chemical is in liquid form, work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.

Change: No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the work shift.

Provide: Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided (when chemical is in liquid form) within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.] (NIOSH, 2003)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
Tychem® Fabric Legend
QC = Tychem QC
SL = Tychem SL
TF = Tychem F
TP = Tychem ThermoPro
C3 = Tychem CPF 3
BR = Tychem BR
LV = Tychem LV
RC = Tychem Responder® CSM
TK = Tychem TK
RF = Tychem Reflector®
Testing Details
Permeation data obtained per ASTM F739. Normalized breakthrough times (the time at which the permeation rate is equal to 0.1 µg/cm2/min) reported in minutes. All liquid chemicals have been tested between approximately 20°C and 27°C unless otherwise stated. All chemicals have been tested at a concentration of greater than 95% unless otherwise stated. Chemical warfare agents (Lewisite, Sarin, Soman, Sulfur Mustard, Tabun and VX Nerve Agent) have been tested at 22°C and 50% relative humidity per military standard MIL-STD-282.
Normalized Breakthrough Times (in Minutes)
Chemical CAS Number State QC SL TF TP C3 BR LV RC TK RF
Phosgene 75-44-5 Vapor >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480
> indicates greater than.
A blank cell indicates the fabric has not been tested. The fabric may or may not offer barrier.

Special Warnings from DuPont

  1. Serged and bound seams are degraded by some hazardous liquid chemicals, such as strong acids, and should not be worn when these chemicals are present.
  2. CAUTION: This information is based upon technical data that DuPont believes to be reliable. It is subject to revision as additional knowledge and experience are gained. DuPont makes no guarantee of results and assumes no obligation or liability...
    ... in connection with this information. It is the user's responsibility to determine the level of toxicity and the proper personal protective equipment needed. The information set forth herein reflects laboratory performance of fabrics, not complete garments, under controlled conditions. It is intended for informational use by persons having technical skill for evaluation under their specific end-use conditions, at their own discretion and risk. Anyone intending to use this information should first verify that the garment selected is suitable for the intended use. In many cases, seams and closures have shorter breakthrough times and higher permeation rates than the fabric. Please contact DuPont for specific data. If fabric becomes torn, abraded or punctured, or if seams or closures fail, or if attached gloves, visors, etc. are damaged, end user should discontinue use of garment to avoid potential exposure to chemical. Since conditions of use are outside our control, we make no warranties, express or implied, including, without limitation, no warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use and assume no liability in connection with any use of this information. This information is not intended as a license to operate under or a recommendation to infringe any patent or technical information of DuPont or others covering any material or its use.

(DuPont, 2013)

First Aid
Warning: Effects may be delayed up to 24 hours. Caution is advised.

Signs and Symptoms of Acute Phosgene Exposure: Acute exposure to phosgene may result in severe irritation and burns of the skin, eyes, mucous membranes, and respiratory passages. Cough, dyspnea (shortness of breath), pain in the chest, and severe pulmonary edema may also occur. Cyanosis (blue tint to the skin and mucous membranes) and anxiety may be observed.

Emergency Life-Support Procedures: Acute exposure to phosgene may require decontamination and life support for the victims. Emergency personnel should wear protective clothing appropriate to the type and degree of contamination. Air-purifying or supplied-air respiratory equipment should also be worn, as necessary. Rescue vehicles should carry supplies such as plastic sheeting and disposable plastic bags to assist in preventing spread of contamination.

Inhalation Exposure:
1. Move victims to fresh air. Emergency personnel should avoid self-exposure to phosgene.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
4. RUSH to a health care facility.

Dermal/Eye Exposure:
1. Remove victims from exposure. Emergency personnel should avoid self- exposure to phosgene.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Remove contaminated clothing as soon as possible.
4. If eye exposure has occurred, eyes must be flushed with lukewarm water for at least 15 minutes.
5. Wash exposed skin areas THOROUGHLY with soap and water.
6. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
7. RUSH to a health care facility.

Ingestion Exposure: No information is available. (EPA, 1998)

Physical Properties

This section contains physical properties, flammability limits, and toxic thresholds for this chemical (see definitions of each property). More property data is available for common chemicals.

See also the Levels of Concern guide for information on AEGLs, ERPGs, PACs, and IDLH values.

List of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • CCl2O
Flash Point: data unavailable
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): data unavailable
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): data unavailable
Autoignition Temperature: Not flammable (USCG, 1999)
Melting Point: -180 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Pressure: 1215 mm Hg at 68.0 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): 3.4 (EPA, 1998)
Specific Gravity: 1.432 at 32.0 ° F (EPA, 1998)
Boiling Point: 47 ° F at 760.0 mm Hg (EPA, 1998)
Molecular Weight: 98.92 (EPA, 1998)
Water Solubility: Very slightly soluble (NTP, 1992)
IDLH: 2 ppm (NIOSH, 2003)

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

Final AEGLs for Phosgene (75-44-5)
Exposure Period AEGL-1 AEGL-2 AEGL-3
10 minutes NR 0.6 ppm 3.6 ppm
30 minutes NR 0.6 ppm 1.5 ppm
60 minutes NR 0.3 ppm 0.75 ppm
4 hours NR 0.08 ppm 0.2 ppm
8 hours NR 0.04 ppm 0.09 ppm
NR = Not recommended due to insufficient data
(NAC/NRC, 2013)

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

Chemical ERPG-1 ERPG-2 ERPG-3
Phosgene (75-44-5) NA 0.5 ppm 1.5 ppm
NA = not appropriate.
(AIHA, 2013)

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Phosgene (75-44-5) 0.1 ppm 0.3 ppm 0.75 ppm
(SCAPA, 2012)

Regulatory Information

This section contains regulatory information from the Title III Consolidated List of Lists (see details about each regulatory field).

List of data sources.
Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
Carbonic dichloride 75-44-5 10 10 10 X P095 500
Phosgene 75-44-5 10 10 10 313 P095 500

(EPA List of Lists, 2012)

Alternate Chemical Names

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.