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Chemical Datasheet

FLUORINE

2.3 - Poisonous gas 5.1 - Oxidizer 8 - Corrosive

Chemical Identifiers

CAS Number UN/NA Number DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • 7782-41-4   (FLUORINE)
  • 1045
  • Poison Gas
  • Oxidizer
  • Corrosive
  • FXX
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
Fluorine
  • FLUORINE
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
0
4 4
W ox
Blue Health 4 Can be lethal.
Red Flammability 0 Will not burn under typical fire conditions.
Yellow Instability 4 Readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive reaction at normal temperatures and pressures.
White Special W
OX
Reacts violently or explosively with water.
Possesses oxidizing properties.
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
Fluorine is a pale yellow gas with a pungent odor. It is commonly shipped as a cryogenic liquid. It is toxic by inhalation and skin absorption. Contact with skin in lower than lethal concentrations causes chemical burns. It reacts with water to form hydrofluoric acid and oxygen. It is corrosive to most common materials. It reacts with most combustible materials to the point that ignition occurs. Under prolonged exposure to fire or intense heat the containers may violently rupture and rocket.

Hazards

Reactivity Alerts
Air & Water Reactions
Water vapor will react combustibly with Fluorine; an explosive reaction occurs between liquid fluorine and ice, after an intermediate induction period, [NASA SP-3037: 52(1967)]: If liquid air, which has stood for some time is treated with Fluorine, a precipitate is formed which is likely to explode. Explosive material is thought to be Fluorine Hydrate, [Mellor 2:11(1946-1947)]. It reacts with water to form hydrofluoric acid and oxygen.
Fire Hazard
May ignite other combustible materials (wood, paper, oil, etc.) Mixture with fuels may explode. Container may explode in heat of fire. Vapor explosion and poison hazard indoors, outdoors, or in sewers. Poisonous gas is produced in fire. Avoid contact with all oxidizable materials, including organic materials. Will react violently with water and most organic materials to produce heat and toxic fumes. Keep gas in tank, avoid exposure to all other materials. (EPA, 1998)
Health Hazard
Poisonous; may be fatal if inhaled. Vapor extremely irritating. Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes. Chronic absorption may cause osteosclerosis and calcification of ligaments. (EPA, 1998)
Reactivity Profile
Propellant; ignites upon contact with alcohols, amines, ammonia, beryllium alkyls, boranes, dicyanogen, hydrazines, hydrocarbons, hydrogen, nitroalkanes, powdered metals, silanes, or thiols [Bretherick, 1979 p.174]; Aluminum powder and iodine in close contact will ignite spontaneously, Fluorine with metals requires added heat for ignition, [NFPA 491M]. Antimony is spontaneously flammable in fluorine, chlorine, and bromine. With iodine, the reaction produces heat, which can cause flame or even an explosion if the quantities are great enough, [Mellor 9:379(1946-1947)]. The oxides of the alkalis and alkaline earths are vigorously attacked by fluorine gas with incandescence, [Mellor 2:13(1946-1947)]. Fluorine causes aromatic hydrocarbons and unsaturated alkanes to ignite spontaneously, [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:55(1956)]. Fluorine vigorously reacts with arsenic and arsenic trioxide at ordinary temperatures, [Mellor 9:34(1946-1947)]. Bromine mixed with fluorine at ordinary temperatures yields bromine trifluoride, with a luminous flame, [Mellor 2:12(1946-1947)]. Calcium silicide burns readily in fluorine, [Mellor 6:663(1946-1947)]. The carbonates of sodium, lithium, calcium, and lead in contact with fluorine are decomposed at ordinary temperatures with incandescence, [Mellor 2:13(1946-1947)]. A mixture of fluorine and carbon disulfide ignites at ordinary temperatures, [Mellor 2:13(1946-1947)]. The reaction between fluorine and carbon tetrachloride is violent and sometimes explosive, [Mellor 2, Supp. 1, 198(1956)]. The uncontrolled reaction between fluorine and chlorine dioxide is explosive, [Mellor 2, Supp. 1, 532(1956)]. Fluorine and silver cyanide react with explosive violence at ordinary temperatures, [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:63(1956)]. Fluorine and sodium acetate produce an explosive reaction involving the formation of diacetyl peroxide, [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:56(1956)]. Selenium, silicon, or sulfur ignites in fluorine gas at ordinary temperatures, [Mellor 2:11-13(1946-1947)]. Each bubble of sulfur dioxide gas led into a container of fluorine produces an explosion, [Mellor 2:1(1946-1947)]. Fluorine and thallous chloride react violently, melting the product, [Mellor, Supp. 1:63(1956)].
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

Use caution: Liquids with this reactive group classification have been known to react with the absorbents listed below.

Response Recommendations

Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 124 [Gases - Toxic and/or Corrosive - Oxidizing]:

IMMEDIATE PRECAUTIONARY MEASURE: Isolate spill or leak area for at least 100 meters (330 feet) in all directions.

SPILL: See ERG Table 1 - Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances on the UN/NA 1045 datasheet.

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2020)
Firefighting
A few whiffs of the gas or vapor could cause death. Gas, vapor or liquid could be fatal on penetrating the firefighters' normal full protective clothing. Only special protective clothing designed to protect against fluorine should be used; the normal full protective clothing available to the average fire department will not provide adequate protection. Do not direct water onto fluorine leaks as the fire may be intensified.

For small fire, use dry chemical or carbon dioxide. For large fire, use water spray, fog, or foam. For massive fire in cargo area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles. (EPA, 1998)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from ERG Guide 124 [Gases - Toxic and/or Corrosive - Oxidizing]:

Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Keep combustibles (wood, paper, oil, etc.) away from spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Avoid allowing water runoff to contact spilled material. Do not direct water at spill or source of leak. If possible, turn leaking containers so that gas escapes rather than liquid. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Isolate area until gas has dispersed. Ventilate the area. (ERG, 2020)
Protective Clothing
Excerpt from NIOSH Pocket Guide for Fluorine:

Skin: PREVENT SKIN CONTACT (LIQUID) - If this chemical is in liquid form, wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.

Eyes: PREVENT EYE CONTACT (LIQUID) - If this chemical is in liquid form, wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.

Wash skin: WHEN CONTAMINATED (LIQUID) - If this chemical is in liquid form, the worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.

Remove: WHEN WET OR CONTAMINATED (LIQUID) - If this chemical is in liquid form, work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.

Change: No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the workshift.

Provide:
• EYEWASH (LIQUID) - Eyewash fountains should be provided (when this chemical is in liquid form) in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substances; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection.
• QUICK DRENCH (LIQUID) - Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided (when this chemical is in liquid form) within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.] (NIOSH, 2022)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
Normalized Breakthrough Times (in Minutes)
Chemical CAS Number State QS QC SL C3 TF TP RC TK RF
Fluorine 7782-41-4 Vapor >480
> indicates greater than.

Special Warning from DuPont: Tychem® and Tyvek® fabrics should not be used around heat, flames, sparks or in potentially flammable or explosive environments. Only...

(DuPont, 2022)

First Aid
Warning: Fluorine is a corrosive gas and may be converted to hydrofluoric acid in the lungs and on other moist tissue.

Signs and Symptoms of Fluorine Exposure: Signs and symptoms of acute exposure to fluorine include coughing, choking, and chills. Eye, nose, skin, and respiratory irritation may occur. Eyelid eczema and thermal burns have been noted after dermal contact. In severe exposures, pulmonary edema may develop after 1 to 2 days.

Emergency Life-Support Procedures: Acute exposure to fluorine exposure may require decontamination and life support for the victims. Emergency personnel should wear protective clothing appropriate to the type and degree of contamination. Air-purifying or supplied-air respiratory equipment should also be worn, as necessary. Rescue vehicles should carry supplies such as plastic sheeting and disposable plastic bags to assist in preventing spread of contamination.

Inhalation Exposure:
1. Move victims to fresh air. Emergency personnel should avoid self-exposure to fluorine.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
4. Transport to a health care facility.

Dermal/Eye Exposure:
1. Remove victims from exposure. Emergency personnel should avoid self-exposure to fluorine.
2. Evaluate vital signs including pulse and respiratory rate, and note any trauma. If no pulse is detected, provide CPR. If not breathing, provide artificial respiration. If breathing is labored, administer oxygen or other respiratory support.
3. Remove contaminated clothing as soon as possible.
4. If eye exposure has occurred, eyes must be flushed with copious amounts of lukewarm water for at least 15 minutes.
5. Wash exposed skin areas thoroughly with soap and water.
6. Obtain authorization and/or further instructions from the local hospital for administration of an antidote or performance of other invasive procedures.
7. Transport to a health care facility.

Ingestion Exposure: Not applicable. (EPA, 1998)

Physical Properties

Chemical Formula:
  • F2
Flash Point: data unavailable
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): data unavailable
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): data unavailable
Autoignition Temperature: Not flammable (USCG, 1999)
Melting Point: -363.3°F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Pressure: 760 mmHg at -306.2°F (EPA, 1998)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): 1.695 (EPA, 1998)
Specific Gravity: 1.5127 at -306.6°F (EPA, 1998)
Boiling Point: -306.6°F at 760 mmHg (EPA, 1998)
Molecular Weight: 38 (EPA, 1998)
Water Solubility: Reacts with water (NIOSH, 2022)
Ionization Energy/Potential: 15.70 eV (NIOSH, 2022)
IDLH: 25 ppm (NIOSH, 2022)

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

Final AEGLs for Fluorine (7782-41-4)
Exposure Period AEGL-1 AEGL-2 AEGL-3
10 minutes 1.7 ppm 20 ppm 36 ppm
30 minutes 1.7 ppm 11 ppm 19 ppm
60 minutes 1.7 ppm 5 ppm 13 ppm
4 hours 1.7 ppm 2.3 ppm 5.7 ppm
8 hours 1.7 ppm 2.3 ppm 5.7 ppm
(NAC/NRC, 2022)

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

Chemical ERPG-1 ERPG-2 ERPG-3
Fluorine (7782-41-4) 0.5 ppm star-in-circle icon indicates that odor should be detectable near ERPG-1. 5 ppm 20 ppm
star-in-circle icon indicates that odor should be detectable near ERPG-1.
(AIHA, 2020)

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Fluorine (7782-41-4) 1.7 ppm 5 ppm 13 ppm
(DOE, 2018)

Regulatory Information

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
Fluorine 7782-41-4 500 pounds 10 pounds 10 pounds 313 P056 1000 pounds

(EPA List of Lists, 2022)

CISA Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

RELEASE THEFT SABOTAGE
Chemical of Interest CAS Number Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Min Conc STQ Security
Issue
Fluorine 7782-41-4 1.00 % 1000 pounds toxic 6.17 % 15 pounds WME

(CISA, 2007)

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

Chemical Name CAS Number Threshold Quantity (TQ)
Fluorine 7782-41-4 1000 pounds

(OSHA, 2019)

Alternate Chemical Names