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Chemical Datasheet

TOLUENE

3 - Flammable liquid

Chemical Identifiers

CAS Number UN/NA Number DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • 108-88-3   (TOLUENE)
  • 1294
  • Flammable Liquid
  • TOL
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
Toluene
  • TOLUENE
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
3
2 0
Blue Health 2 Can cause temporary incapacitation or residual injury.
Red Flammability 3 Can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions.
Yellow Instability 0 Normally stable, even under fire conditions.
White Special
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
A clear colorless liquid with a characteristic aromatic odor. Flash point 40°F. Less dense than water (7.2 lb / gal) and insoluble in water. Hence floats on water. Vapors heavier than air. May be toxic by inhalation, ingestion or skin contact. Used in aviation and automotive fuels, as a solvent, and to make other chemicals.

Hazards

Reactivity Alerts
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. Insoluble in water.
Fire Hazard
Behavior in Fire: Vapor is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back. (USCG, 1999)
Health Hazard
Vapors irritate eyes and upper respiratory tract; cause dizziness, headache, anesthesia, respiratory arrest. Liquid irritates eyes and causes drying of skin. If aspirated, causes coughing, gagging, distress, and rapidly developing pulmonary edema. If ingested causes vomiting, griping, diarrhea, depressed respiration. (USCG, 1999)
Reactivity Profile
TOLUENE reacts vigorously with allyl chloride or other alkyl halides even at -70° C in the presence of ethyl aluminum dichloride or ethyl aluminum sesquichloride. Explosions have been reported [NFPA 491M 1991]. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. When added to a tank of sulfur dichloride, the tank over pressurized and ruptured in a reaction thought to be catalyzed by iron or iron(III) chloride [Chem. Eng. News, 1988, 66(32), 2].
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

No information available.

Response Recommendations

Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 130 [Flammable Liquids (Water-Immiscible / Noxious)]:

As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters (150 feet) in all directions.

LARGE SPILL: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 300 meters (1000 feet).

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2016)
Firefighting
Excerpt from ERG Guide 130 [Flammable Liquids (Water-Immiscible / Noxious)]:

CAUTION: All these products have a very low flash point: Use of water spray when fighting fire may be inefficient.

SMALL FIRE: Dry chemical, CO2, water spray or regular foam.

LARGE FIRE: Water spray, fog or regular foam. Do not use straight streams. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk.

FIRE INVOLVING TANKS OR CAR/TRAILER LOADS: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. (ERG, 2016)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from ERG Guide 130 [Flammable Liquids (Water-Immiscible / Noxious)]:

ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. A vapor-suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. Use clean, non-sparking tools to collect absorbed material.

LARGE SPILL: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Water spray may reduce vapor, but may not prevent ignition in closed spaces. (ERG, 2016)
Protective Clothing
Skin: Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.

Eyes: Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.

Wash skin: The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.

Remove: Work clothing that becomes wet should be immediately removed due to its flammability hazard(i.e. for liquids with flash point < 100°F)

Change: No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the work shift. (NIOSH, 2016)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
Normalized Breakthrough Times (in Minutes)
Chemical CAS Number State QS QC SL C3 TF TP BR RC TK RF
Toluene (>95%) 108-88-3 Liquid imm. imm. >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480
> indicates greater than.
"imm." indicates immediate; having a normalized breakthrough time of 10 minutes or less.

Special Warnings from DuPont

  1. Serged and bound seams are degraded by some hazardous liquid chemicals, such as strong acids, and should not be worn when these chemicals are present.
  2. CAUTION: This information is based upon technical data that DuPont believes to be reliable. It is subject to revision as additional knowledge and experience are gained. DuPont makes no guarantee of results and assumes no obligation or liability...

(DuPont, 2018)

First Aid
EYES: First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center. Do not put any ointments, oils, or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop.

SKIN: IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. If symptoms such as redness or irritation develop, IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital for treatment.

INHALATION: IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air. If symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat, or chest) develop, call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital. Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. Whenever possible, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) should be used; if not available, use a level of protection greater than or equal to that advised under Protective Clothing.

INGESTION: DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center. Be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital if advised by a physician. If the victim is convulsing or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth, ensure that the victim's airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with the head lower than the body. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital. (NTP, 1992)

Physical Properties

Chemical Formula:
  • C7H8
Flash Point: 40 ° F (NTP, 1992)
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): 1.27 % (NTP, 1992)
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): 7.1 % (NTP, 1992)
Autoignition Temperature: 896 ° F (USCG, 1999)
Melting Point: -139 ° F (NTP, 1992)
Vapor Pressure: 10 mm Hg at 43.5 ° F ; 20 mm Hg at 65.1° F; 40 mm Hg at 89.2° F (NTP, 1992)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): 3.14 (NTP, 1992)
Specific Gravity: 0.867 at 68 ° F (USCG, 1999)
Boiling Point: 231.1 ° F at 760 mm Hg (NTP, 1992)
Molecular Weight: 92.14 (NTP, 1992)
Water Solubility: less than 1 mg/mL at 64° F (NTP, 1992)
Ionization Potential: 8.82 eV (NIOSH, 2016)
IDLH: 500 ppm (NIOSH, 2016)

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

Final AEGLs for Toluene (108-88-3)
Exposure Period AEGL-1 AEGL-2 AEGL-3
10 minutes 67 ppm 1400 ppm 1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL. Safety consideration against explosions must be taken into account. 10000 ppm 2-flame icon indicates value is 50-99% of LEL. Extreme safety consideration against explosions must be taken into account.
30 minutes 67 ppm 760 ppm 5200 ppm 1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL. Safety consideration against explosions must be taken into account.
60 minutes 67 ppm 560 ppm 3700 ppm 1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL. Safety consideration against explosions must be taken into account.
4 hours 67 ppm 310 ppm 1800 ppm 1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL. Safety consideration against explosions must be taken into account.
8 hours 67 ppm 250 ppm 1400 ppm 1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL. Safety consideration against explosions must be taken into account.
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) = 14000 ppm
1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL. Safety consideration against explosions must be taken into account.
2-flame icon indicates value is 50-99% of LEL. Extreme safety consideration against explosions must be taken into account.
(NAC/NRC, 2017)

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

Chemical ERPG-1 ERPG-2 ERPG-3
Toluene (108-88-3) 50 ppm star-in-circle icon indicates that odor should be detectable near ERPG-1. 300 ppm 1000 ppm
star-in-circle icon indicates that odor should be detectable near ERPG-1.
(AIHA, 2016)

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Toluene (108-88-3) 67 ppm 560 ppm 3700 ppm 1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL. LEL = 14000 ppm
1-flame icon indicates value is 10-49% of LEL.
(DOE, 2016)

Regulatory Information

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
Toluene 108-88-3 1000 pounds 313 U220

(EPA List of Lists, 2015)

DHS Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

No regulatory information available.

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

No regulatory information available.

Alternate Chemical Names