Print
Chemical Datasheet

FURFURAL

6.1 - Poison 3 - Flammable liquid

Chemical Identifiers

CAS Number UN/NA Number DOT Hazard Label USCG CHRIS Code
  • 98-01-1   (FURFURAL)
  • 1199
  • Poison
  • Flammable Liquid
  • FFA
NIOSH Pocket Guide International Chem Safety Card
Furfural
  • FURFURAL
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
2
3 1
Blue Health 3 Can cause serious or permanent injury.
Red Flammability 2 Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
Yellow Instability 1 Normally stable but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures.
White Special
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
Colorless or reddish-brown mobile liquids with a penetrating odor. Flash points 140°F. Denser than water and soluble in water. Vapors heavier than air. May be toxic by ingestion, skin absorption or inhalation.

Hazards

Reactivity Alerts
Air & Water Reactions
Flammable. This chemical is sensitive to light and air. Soluble in water, with mixing.
Fire Hazard
Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Irritating vapors are generated when heated (USCG, 1999)
Health Hazard
Vapor may irritate eyes and respiratory system. Liquid irritates skin and may cause dermatitis. (USCG, 1999)
Reactivity Profile
FURFURAL reacts with sodium hydrogen carbonate. It also can react with strong oxidizers. An exothermic resinification of almost explosive violence can occur upon contact with strong mineral acids or alkalis. It forms condensation products with many types of compounds, including phenol, amines and urea. (NTP, 1992).
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

Use caution: Liquids with this reactive group classification have been known to react with the absorbents listed below.

Response Recommendations

Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from ERG Guide 132P [Flammable Liquids - Corrosive]:

As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters (150 feet) in all directions.

SPILL: Increase, in the downwind direction, as necessary, the isolation distance shown above.

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2016)
Firefighting
Excerpt from ERG Guide 132P [Flammable Liquids - Corrosive]:

Some of these materials may react violently with water.

SMALL FIRE: Dry chemical, CO2, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam.

LARGE FIRE: Water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire-control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Do not get water inside containers.

FIRE INVOLVING TANKS OR CAR/TRAILER LOADS: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. (ERG, 2016)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from ERG Guide 132P [Flammable Liquids - Corrosive]:

Fully encapsulating, vapor-protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks with no fire. ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. A vapor-suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Absorb with earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers (except for Hydrazine). Use clean, non-sparking tools to collect absorbed material.

LARGE SPILL: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Water spray may reduce vapor, but may not prevent ignition in closed spaces. (ERG, 2016)
Protective Clothing
Skin: Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.

Eyes: Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.

Wash skin: The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.

Remove: Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.

Change: No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the work shift. (NIOSH, 2016)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
Normalized Breakthrough Times (in Minutes)
Chemical CAS Number State QS QC SL C3 TF TP BR RC TK RF
Furfural (>95%) 98-01-1 Liquid 227 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480
> indicates greater than.
A blank cell indicates the fabric has not been tested. The fabric may or may not offer barrier.

Special Warnings from DuPont

  1. Serged and bound seams are degraded by some hazardous liquid chemicals, such as strong acids, and should not be worn when these chemicals are present.
  2. CAUTION: This information is based upon technical data that DuPont believes to be reliable. It is subject to revision as additional knowledge and experience are gained. DuPont makes no guarantee of results and assumes no obligation or liability...

(DuPont, 2018)

First Aid
EYES: First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center. Do not put any ointments, oils, or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop.

SKIN: IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital for treatment after washing the affected areas.

INHALATION: IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air. IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat, or chest) develop. Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. Whenever possible, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) should be used; if not available, use a level of protection greater than or equal to that advised under Protective Clothing.

INGESTION: If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center. Generally, the induction of vomiting is NOT recommended outside of a physician's care due to the risk of aspirating the chemical into the victim's lungs. However, if the victim is conscious and not convulsing and if medical help is not readily available, consider the risk of inducing vomiting because of the high toxicity of the chemical ingested. Ipecac syrup or salt water may be used in such an emergency. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital. If the victim is convulsing or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth, ensure that the victim's airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with the head lower than the body. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital.

OTHER: Since this chemical is a known or suspected carcinogen you should contact a physician for advice regarding the possible long term health effects and potential recommendation for medical monitoring. Recommendations from the physician will depend upon the specific compound, its chemical, physical and toxicity properties, the exposure level, length of exposure, and the route of exposure. (NTP, 1992)

Physical Properties

Chemical Formula:
  • C5H4O2
Flash Point: 140 ° F (NTP, 1992)
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): 2.1 % (NTP, 1992)
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): 19.3 % (NTP, 1992)
Autoignition Temperature: 739 ° F (USCG, 1999)
Melting Point: -33.7 ° F (NTP, 1992)
Vapor Pressure: 1 mm Hg at 68 ° F ; 3 mm Hg at 86° F; 10 mm Hg at 122° F (NTP, 1992)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): 3.31 (NTP, 1992)
Specific Gravity: 1.159 at 68 ° F (USCG, 1999)
Boiling Point: 323.1 ° F at 760 mm Hg (NTP, 1992)
Molecular Weight: 96.09 (NTP, 1992)
Water Solubility: 50 to 100 mg/mL at 64° F (NTP, 1992)
Ionization Potential: 9.21 eV (NIOSH, 2016)
IDLH: 100 ppm (NIOSH, 2016)

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

No AEGL information available.

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

Chemical ERPG-1 ERPG-2 ERPG-3
Furfural (98-01-1) 2 ppm star-in-circle icon indicates that odor should be detectable near ERPG-1. 10 ppm 50 ppm
star-in-circle icon indicates that odor should be detectable near ERPG-1.
(AIHA, 2016)

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Furancarboxaldehyde, 2-; (Furfural) (98-01-1) 2 ppm 10 ppm 100 ppm LEL = 21000 ppm
(DOE, 2016)

Regulatory Information

EPA Consolidated List of Lists

Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
Furfural 98-01-1 5000 pounds U125

(EPA List of Lists, 2015)

DHS Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

No regulatory information available.

OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard List

No regulatory information available.

Alternate Chemical Names