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Chemical Datasheet

SODIUM

4.3 - Dangerous when wet material
Chemical Identifiers | Hazards | Response Recommendations | Physical Properties | Regulatory Information | Alternate Chemical Names

Chemical Identifiers

CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service registry number. Unique identification number assigned to this chemical by the American Chemical Society.

UN/NA Number - The United Nations-North America number (also called UN number or DOT number). 4-digit number identifying an individual chemical or group of chemicals with similar characteristics. Required on shipping papers; often shown on placards or labels. This numbering system was developed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, and then became the UN standard system for classifying hazardous materials.

DOT Hazard Label - U.S. Department of Transportation hazard warning label for the chemical (such as flammable liquid or corrosive). This label must be displayed on shipped packages, railroad tank cars, and tank trucks according to specifications described in 49 CFR 172.

CHRIS Code - 3-letter code used by the U.S. Coast Guard to identify individual chemicals included in its CHRIS (Chemical Hazards Response Information System) manual.

NFPA 704 - Text description of the diamond-shaped placard, which contains codes indicating the level of the chemical's health, flammability, and instability hazards, along with special hazards such as water- and air-reactivity. See a guide to the NFPA diamond.

General Description - Brief description of the chemical's general appearance, behavior, and hazardousness.

List of data sources.
CAS Number UN/NA Number DOT Hazard Label CHRIS Code
  • 7440-23-5
  • Dangerous When Wet
NFPA 704
Diamond Hazard Value Description
3
3 2
W
Blue Health 3 Can cause serious or permanent injury.
Red Flammability 3 Can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions.
Yellow Instability 2 Readily undergoes violent chemical changes at elevated temperatures and pressures.
White Special W Reacts violently or explosively with water.
(NFPA, 2010)
General Description
A silvery soft metal that becomes grayish white upon exposure to air. Shipped as a solid or molten liquid. Burns violently with explosions that may spatter the material. Used for making gasoline additives, electric power cable, sodium lamps, other chemicals.

Hazards

Reactivity Alerts - Special alerts if the chemical is especially reactive (see list of reactivity alerts).

Air & Water Reactions - Special alerts if the chemical reacts with air, water, or moisture.

Fire Hazard - Description of the chemical's fire hazards (such as flammability, explosion risk, or byproducts that may evolve if the chemical is burned).

Health Hazard - Description of the chemical's health hazards (such as toxicity, flammability, or corrosivity).

Reactivity Profile - Description of the chemical's potential reactivity with other chemicals, air, and water. Also includes any other intrinsic reactive hazards (such as polymerizable or peroxidizable).

Reactive Groups - List of reactive groups that the chemical is assigned to, based on its known chemistry. Reactive groups are categories of chemicals that react in similar ways because their chemical structures are similar. Reactive groups are used to predict reactivity when you add a chemical to MyChemicals. Read more about reactive groups.

Potentially Incompatible Absorbents - Absorbents are products that can be used to soak up liquids from spills. However, some absorbents can react with particular chemicals (that is, they are incompatible), so caution should be used in selecting the correct absorbent for your situation. This section provides a list of potentially incompatible absorbents that have been known to react with liquids assigned to one or more of the reactive groups listed on this datasheet. Read more about absorbents, including situations to watch out for.

List of data sources.
Reactivity Alerts
Air & Water Reactions
May ignite spontaneously in air. Reacts violently with water to give sodium hydroxide and hydrogen, which ignites spontaneously [Merck, 11th ed. 1989)]. The ignition temperature of sodium in air depends on the area of surface exposed: vapor ignites at room temperature; droplets at about 250°F; an agitated pool at 400°F. In the absence of moisture and hydrogen, the reaction is insignificant [Mellor 2 Supp. 2:440 1961].
Fire Hazard
Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Fumes of burning Na are highly irritating to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. (USCG, 1999)
Health Hazard
Severe burns caused by burning metal or by caustic soda formed by reaction with moisture on skin. (USCG, 1999)
Reactivity Profile
SODIUM is a powerful reducing agent. Reacts with incandescence with boron trifluoride [Merck 11th ed. 1989]. Reacts explosively with maleic anhydride [Chem Safety Data Sheet SD-88 1962; Chem. Haz. Info. Series C-71 1960]. Explodes on contact with bromoazide. Mixtures with any of the following produce a strong explosion on impact: aluminum bromide, aluminum chloride, aluminum fluoride, ammonium chloride, antimony(III) bromide, antimony(III) chloride, antimony(III) iodide, arsenic(III) chloride, arsenic(III) iodide, bismuth(III) bromide, bismuth(III) chloride, bismuth(III) iodide, boron tribromide, carbon tetrachloride, chromium(IV) chloride, cobalt(II) bromide, cobalt(II) chloride, copper(II) chloride, iron(II) chloride, iron(III) bromide, iron(II) iodide, iodine bromide, manganese(II) chloride, mercury(II) bromide, mercury(II) chloride, mercury(II) fluoride, mercury(II) iodide, mercury(I) chloride, silicon tetrachloride, silver fluoride, tin(IV) chloride, tin(IV) iodide (with sulfur), tin(II) chloride, sulfur dibromide, sulfur dichloride, thallium(I) bromide, vanadium pentachloride, phosphorus pentachloride, phosphorus tribromide, and zinc bromide [Mellor 2 Supp. 2:497 1961]. Reacts with ammonium nitrate to form a yellow explosive substance, thought to be disodium nitrite [Mellor 8: Supp. 1 546 1964]. Reduces heated bismuth(III) oxide to the metal; the reaction is accompanied by incandescence [Mellor 9:649 1946-47]. Reacts, if finely divided, with bromine with luminescence. Burns spontaneously in moist chlorine. Reacts at room temperature with iodine [Mellor 2 Supp. 1:848 1956]. Reacts explosively with Dry Ice if the two are brought together by impact [Mellor 2 Supp. 2:468 1961]. Forms explosive mixtures with chlorinated hydrocarbons [Chem. Eng. News 26:2604 1948]. Explodes on contact with hydrochloric acid [Mellor 2:469 1946-47]. Explodes with aqueous hydrofluoric acid [Mellor 2:469 1946-47]. Ignites spontaneously in contact with dilute nitric acid [Mellor 2:470 1946-47]. Reacts with dilute sulfuric acid with explosive violence [Mellor 2:470 1946-47]. Sodium ignites on contact with hydroxylamine. (Mellor, 1940, Vol. 8, 292.)
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)
Potentially Incompatible Absorbents

No information available.

Response Recommendations

Isolation and Evacuation - Isolation and evacuation distance recommendations from the Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG).

Firefighting - Response recommendations if the chemical is on fire (or near a fire).

Non-Fire Response - Response recommendations if the chemical isn't on fire (or near a fire).

Protective Clothing - Recommendations for protective gear.

Dupont Tychem® Suit Fabrics - A table of normalized breakthrough times for DuPont Tychem suit fabrics for the chemical, if available.

First Aid - Recommended first aid treatment for people exposed to the chemical.

List of data sources.
Isolation and Evacuation
Excerpt from GUIDE 138 [Substances - Water-Reactive (Emitting Flammable Gases)]:

As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids.

SPILL: Increase, in the downwind direction, as necessary, the isolation distance shown above.

FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2012)
Firefighting
Excerpt from GUIDE 138 [Substances - Water-Reactive (Emitting Flammable Gases)]:

DO NOT USE WATER OR FOAM.

SMALL FIRE: Dry chemical, soda ash, lime or sand.

LARGE FIRE: DRY sand, dry chemical, soda ash or lime or withdraw from area and let fire burn. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk.

FIRE INVOLVING METALS OR POWDERS (ALUMINUM, LITHIUM, MAGNESIUM, ETC.): Use dry chemical, DRY sand, sodium chloride powder, graphite powder or Met-L-X® powder; in addition, for Lithium you may use Lith-X® powder or copper powder. Also, see GUIDE 170.

FIRE INVOLVING TANKS OR CAR/TRAILER LOADS: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. (ERG, 2012)
Non-Fire Response
Excerpt from GUIDE 138 [Substances - Water-Reactive (Emitting Flammable Gases)]:

ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Avoid allowing water runoff to contact spilled material. DO NOT GET WATER on spilled substance or inside containers.

SMALL SPILL: Cover with DRY earth, DRY sand or other non-combustible material followed with plastic sheet to minimize spreading or contact with rain. Dike for later disposal; do not apply water unless directed to do so.

POWDER SPILL: Cover powder spill with plastic sheet or tarp to minimize spreading and keep powder dry. DO NOT CLEAN-UP OR DISPOSE OF, EXCEPT UNDER SUPERVISION OF A SPECIALIST. (ERG, 2012)
Protective Clothing
Maximum protective clothing; goggles and face shield. (USCG, 1999)
DuPont Tychem® Suit Fabrics
No information available.
First Aid
SKIN: brush off any metal, then flood with water for at least 15 min.; treat as heat or caustic burn; call a doctor. (USCG, 1999)

Physical Properties

This section contains physical properties, flammability limits, and toxic thresholds for this chemical (see definitions of each property). More property data is available for common chemicals.

See also the Levels of Concern guide for information on AEGLs, ERPGs, PACs, and IDLH values.

List of data sources.
Chemical Formula:
  • Na
Flash Point: data unavailable
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): data unavailable
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): data unavailable
Autoignition Temperature: 250 ° F (USCG, 1999)
Melting Point: 207.5 ° F (USCG, 1999)
Vapor Pressure: data unavailable
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): data unavailable
Specific Gravity: 0.971 at 68.0 ° F (USCG, 1999)
Boiling Point: 1621 ° F at 760.0 mm Hg (USCG, 1999)
Molecular Weight: 22.49 (USCG, 1999)
Water Solubility: data unavailable
IDLH: data unavailable

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

No AEGL information available.

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

No ERPG information available.

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Sodium (7440-23-5) 13 mg/m3 140 mg/m3 870 mg/m3
(SCAPA, 2012)

Regulatory Information

This section contains regulatory information from the Title III Consolidated List of Lists (see details about each regulatory field).

List of data sources.
Regulatory Name CAS Number/
313 Category Code
EPCRA 302
EHS TPQ
EPCRA 304
EHS RQ
CERCLA RQ EPCRA 313
TRI
RCRA
Code
CAA 112(r)
RMP TQ
Sodium 7440-23-5 10

(EPA List of Lists, 2012)

Alternate Chemical Names

This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, including trade names and synonyms.